Thursday, August 29, 2019

Suicide Case Study: Kokhono Asheni (1961)

 Kokhono Asheni (1961) Bangladeshi Movie Poster      Md. Robiul Islam  Abstract: This is a critical review analysis of the cinema Kokhono Asheni (1961) directed by Zahir Raihan. This review is done to understand symbolism, power, romanticism, exploitation, unemployment and impoverishment in the film. This review argues that the occurrence of suicide is happened in Shawkat’s family for the upper psychic drivers. The review employs Marxist theory, Semiotics, Feminism and Psychoanalysis approaches to establish the argument.    Keywords: Symbolism, power, romanticism, exploitation, unemployment, impoverishment.  “You do creation. I reserve the creations….”                 ____Sultan  “I have no kindness to human, I hate human…”           ____Sultan  “How the life is thought precisely, actually it’s not like that…” ___ Shawkat  “I have to die bit by bit in this museum, no one can free me from here…” ___Marium  “We are all alone in this world, I am going on my own path, you choose your own” ___Shawkat    Impoverishment which leads them to commit suicide in the film but exploitation, unemployment and social tension have assisted a lot. Not only police but also no one found the source of suicide of them. A narrative quotation in the film is “on one found why and how they committed suicide, police has investigated the case but didn’t find any clue. But we shall try to find the source of the suicide occurrence through the upper characteristics attributed which will establish and symbolize the characterization of the characters.    From Previous Literature:  There is no important literature about this film and most of them are not arguable or there is not more valuable information in this article. There is huge lack of arguable information in these literatures. This article only describes two factors. One is the relationship of beauty with life and another is romanticism. Without these factors this article does not provide any arguable information. Sultan is the art collector. He is the worshiper of beauty of art. But he considers human [Marium] as the art. It has no life, it is like stone. It will always stay as stable. It is not dynamic. On the other hand romanticism is depicted in the rainy scene at village. Shawkat and Marium go to village for drawing painting with village scenery. But suddenly rain comes and their romantic scenery, dialogues are existed in the film. [Movie Review: Kokhono Asheni, Kokhono Ashe Nai by Wahed Sujan: 2013: Iccha Shunya Manush]  There are two main factors in the film used to understand its inner meanings. One is symbolism, here “Marium as the representative of the struggle of the Bangladeshis against the Pakistani oppressors” [Film Scholar Imran Firdaus], Sultan is the resemblance of Pakistani despot.    The Director, Zahir Raihan of Kokhono Asheni (1961) in the set    It describes the socio political tension existed in the 60s society between oppressors and oppressed. Marium is the ‘acquisition’ of Sultan that resembles dependent Bangladesh which is acquired by Pakistan in 1947 which never be freed from Pakistan. The first sequence and the last sequence of the film shows two sisters’ dead boy with their bother’s dead body. Actually it is considered the ‘circle of life’ which would never end. That means there is no means of freedom without oppression and social tension. But the means of independence is shown in Jibon Theke Neya (1970) another master piece directed by Zahir Raihan. Kokhono Asheni (1961) is directorial debut of Zahir Raihan. It did not do well in the box office but its substance, style, narrative elements are criticized positively by the critics. Actually this film shows the life of the average middle –class Bangladesh in Dhaka in 1960s. It is an experimental art film with social melodrama and it has a strong socio-political message for the society. [Kokhono Asheni: A Case Study by Nabil Hossain: 2018, Dhaka Tribune]  A research article about Kokhono Asheni (1961) is also available from Zakir Hossain Raju’s writing [‘Bangladesh Cinema and National Identity: In Search of the Modern? By Zakir Hossain Raju: 2014]    Theoretical Framework: This study employs Marxist theory, Semiotic cinema theory, Feminism and Psychoanalysis to understand life and view of the characters Sultan, Shawkat, Marium specially. This study also will find the symbolization the film through semiotic cinema theory.    Metaphorical Characterization  In semiotic cinema theory there are mainly two manners to understand any film’s meaning. One is denotative meaning and the other is connotative meaning. Denotative meaning is such a close approximation of reality. We do not have to strive to understand or know its meaning. Most of the signs of the cinema are denotative. But connotative meaning is metaphorical meaning. It gives us implicit meaning of a film or scene. According to Saussure, a sign consists of a signifier and a signified. Every character can be sign or costume, or any other object can be sign and signs are always identical. Here in the film Kokhono Asheni (1961) Sultan, Marium and Shawkat are different kinds of signs and they express different connotative meanings. For example: in metaphorical meaning, Sultan is the despot of Pakistan. Marium is the then exploited Bangladeshis who wants freedom but cannot but in other metaphorical meaning it seems dependent Bangladesh that is acquired by Pakistan in 1947 after state division. Shawkat and his sisters are also unemployed and impoverished people in then dependent Bangladesh. A film has three kinds of cinematic signs. For example; Icon, symbol and index. These are used to express a film’s total signs. Here icon is the photographs or paintings or sculpture used in the movie. Symbol is always conventional. Index expresses the relationship of signifier and signifier in the movie. The museum of the arts, paintings, sculpture means an elite collector or despot in capitalist society. Shawkat’s gorgeous jackets, hair styles are also index that means his status. But losing his father’s job and death, he is totally becomes unemployed and impoverished. Besides, Daniel Chandler points out three kinds of codes in the movie. They are social codes, interpretive codes and textual codes. These are also express film’s metaphorical meaning. For example; in social codes, there some divisions verbal codes, bodily codes, commodity codes and behavioral codes. In verbal codes, how Sultan, Marium and Shawkat talks to each other that would be understood. In bodily codes, bodily contact, proximity, gesture, posture etc of the characters would be understood. In commodity, what kinds of fashions or clothes they wear. Sultan is like elite person in the society. Marium is also like that. But Shawkat is selling his clothes in the shop for money to buy painting materials. In behavioral codes, we understood every character’s behavior. There are two kinds of behavior between the three characters. Romantic behavior contains between Marium and Shawkat. On the other hand, rude behavior stays between Sultan and Marium as well as Sultan and Shawkat. In textual codes we can understand romanticism, realism, music, sculpture, painting etc. we can understand human perception and ideology through interpretive codes. For example: the character’s perception and their own ideology. Metaphorically, this story depicts 1960s social political tension and exploitation to the Bangladeshis occurred by the Pakistanis. Here Sultan is the Pakistani despot and Marium represents her as exploited people. It depicts another meaning of the situation of the artists of then Pakistan. The artists were always with exploitation and socio-political tension. Bangladeshis did not get job in proportional rate. And the real situation, we can know when Shawkat moves from one office to another for a job but does not get. This scenery depicts the unemployment and impoverishment of the then Bangladeshi people ruled by the Pakistan.    Sanjiv Dutt in the film Kokhono Asheni (1961)     Power and exploitation:  In Marxist theory, there are for kinds of societies. They are Feudal society, tribal society, capitalist society and ancient society. But in this film, Zahir Raihan has depicted only capitalist society. According to Marxist theory, ‘the capitalist market transformed art into commodity which can be bought and sold.’    “I bought her only at 50tk in the very childhood. She is the cheapest collection in the museum.”________ Sultan   In the film art can be sold or bought but human? In the film human is also bought and sold by Sultan. According to Marxist theory, society is divided into two classes. One is ruling class. They always own the means of production and another is working class. They do not own the means of production. In the film Sultan owns the means of production. On the other hand Shawkat does not own the means of production. Sultan is an elite person or despot in the society. On the other hand Shawkat is only works for money and there is no relationship between him and his painting after sold. He is separated from the root and his productions. When exchange value is gone, he is nothing but an alienated person. He is alienated from his own products.            “You will come when intended but won’t touch.”____Sultan  That means the producer is alienated from his product. Sultan’s power is depicted in this dialogue.              “The petals go down when touched in the flower.”____ Sultan    Sultan always will keep the Marium as alive as he is worshiper of beauty. He always will stay aside her but will never touch her. He thinks beautiful things will always stay as static. He thinks Marium is like that flower or stone. But he never thinks that she has a heart. But she is exploited bit by bit in the museum by him. No one can free her from it.              “I have to die into the museum bit by bit. No one can free me from there.”____Marium    Sultan is the worshiper of beauty, art but never believe in human. He hates human. He thinks Marium as stone or as like painting or sculpture but never thinks her as human. As the museum is his all, his meditation, his ideology, his eternal pursuit. He has stolen many paintings and sculpture from others to decorate this museum. Ha has also murdered for this beauty or museum. Marium is breaking all the sculpture and paintings. She wants freedom from Sultan’s museum.  In this film his power and exploitation to Marium are depicted from this quotation.              “Break, break more, but you cannot break my mind”._____ Sultan    Sumita Devi in the film Kokhono Asheni (1961)     According to feminist theory:  It is the advocacy of women’s rights on the ground of the equality of the sexes. Feminists always argue that ‘society is patriarchal’. If we discuss about the equality of genders, this film is the perfect example of it. There is no right of women in the film only exploitation and oppression. Here Sultan is the oppressor and Marium is oppressed. And patriarchal society always wants to dominate women excessively. In feminist theory, difference between man and woman is gender which is a political construction not biological. But here in the film has shown it a biological construction. Actually how society treats women is the main factor in feminism. How women really are and what they really want are also under feminism. Here no one can think about equality in the film. But another noticeable matter is woman wants freedom. She is also a human. She is also involved in society. But patriarchal society does not allow her independency. Woman’s oppression is the result of the system of patriarchy. Another view of feminism is oppression is capitalism. Where there is woman oppression, there is capitalism. In the film, the capitalist society (Sultan) oppresses on Marium only for capital. And painting exhibition, sculpture exhibition are involved with capitalist attitude.    According to psychoanalytic film theory:            “Merry, I won’t live without you, Merry. Let’s run away anywhere tonight.”___ Shawkat    Three different psychoanalytic theories are got from Sigmund Freud, Jacques Lacan and Laura Mulvey’s psychoanalysis theory. These are interrelated with the psyche of the characters. Sigmund Freud depicts id, ego and super ego. These drivers are noticeable among the characters. Besides, Lacan’s ‘lack’ theory is also noticeable among them. Laura Mulvey’s ‘Gaze’ is observed in Marium, Shawkat and Sultan. “We are born with an id, while the ego develops through contact with culture which in turn produces the super ego.” [Sigmund Freud: 1984:362]. He argues that our nature is governed by culture and human nature is not something innate or unchangeable. We observe in the movie the character of Sultan; it is unchangeable and is governed by culture his own culture. Freud argues that id is governed by pleasure principle and ego is governed by the reality principle. Id driver is noticed in every character. But ego or super ego is observed only in Shawkat and Marium. Id works in unconscious but ego and super ego work unconscious. Sultan does not know what he says is right or wrong for the society. There is no judgment into it. But Marium and Shawkat are also involved in id but their ego and super ego are strong they observe their reality. They think everything consciously.    According to Jacques Lacan, ‘we are born into a condition of ‘lack’ and subsequently spend the rest of our lives trying to overcome this condition. ‘Lack’ is experienced in different things, but it is always a non representable expression of the fundamental condition of being human’. We notice this lack in every character’s mind. There is lack in Sultan’s mind. He desires worshiping of beauty. Marium desires independence of movement and Shawkat desires job and love of Marium. But without Sultan’s desire, Mariuma and Shawkat’s desire are hidden in mind. So, there creates a lack in their mind.    Read More About Kokhono Asheni (1961)  Laura Mulvey’s (1975) essay ‘Visual pleasure and narrative cinema’ she depicts her ‘gaze’. According to her, female character is used in cinema for fundamentally two reasons. (i) She is the object of male desire and (ii) she is the signifier of the threat of castration. But in this film, Kokhono Asheni (1961) two reasons are observed. Here Sultan worships her for her beauty. That means she is the desire of him though she is non touchable. On the other hand she is also a desire of Shawkat. That would be love or romance but it is also a kind of desire. Laura Mulvey argues that every gaze is sexual anyway it is schopophilia. On the other hand she is the signifier in the movie. She is woman that means not man or nothing. Feminism argues that in most patriarchal society woman is though as not man or nothing. But is political construction, not biological. Another view is she is weak in nature [Rashomon: 1950)]. So, she has no power like man.  ‘In a world structured by sexual imbalance the pleasure of the gaze has been separated into two different positions; men look and women exhibit (to-be-looked-at-ness).’ This view is also receivable in this analysis. As there is huge sexual imbalance, equality in the movie. Zahir Raihan has pointed out its root from this perspective.      Khan Ataur Rahman and Sumita Devi in Kokhono Asheni (1961) Movie    Realism and Romanticism:  Kokhono Asheni (1961) is a kind of realist and romantic film though romantic and realist scenes are little. Love relationship between Shawkat and Marium is the fundamental factor of romanticism here. For example: rainy scenes in the village and the romantic moment in the city roads and romantic moment in the house. But these are really little in the film for impoverishment and its results.    “Whom I will love, can dance, sing. My mind will fly in the far like goose with her melody.”_____ Shawkat    Marium does not get any scope to move away. She must stay alone in the museum. But when she is introduced with Shawkat, their relation is broadened in which time they don’t know. Mamun also loves Marium but he cannot express it to Marium. Shawkat has expressed love proposal to before Mamun.              “You are my friend. There is nothing to hide from you, we love each other.”____Shawkat    But their romantic moment is spoilt when he stands on strong reality. Even he cannot tolerate the reality of life. Here unemployment and impoverishment are the fundamental factors to interrupt their love relationship. He is consistent to run away with Marium in other area but in vain to critical reality of life.    “It is easy to tell but hard to run away, haven’t you seen my two sisters. How will we run away leaving them?”____ Shawkat    Shawkat is an artist. But his income is very little. Family depends on his father’s job salary. His lifestyle was like elite person before. His fashion, hairstyles were like elite person. But he is faced with serious impoverishment when his father loses job and his death. He has found job a lot but every company’s post is fulfilled. An unemployed person like him, at last sells his gorgeous jacket in the market for impoverishment. He has experienced the seriousness of life reality.              “How the life is thought precisely, actually it’s not like that, Merry…” ___ Shawkat     Before his father’s death, Shawkat and his friends always was on hanging at a café. But after understanding the reality of life with impoverishment, he cannot tolerate his former happy moments or dialogues. A customer in the café is discussing against artists in this country with his friends wearing a glass. But Shawkat takes down his glass and tells.              “Try to observe the world without glass, you will learn a lot.”____ Shawkat    Another thing we can understand in the film ‘freedom from captivity’. Marium is in chain for the whole life but when she comes in village and for the first time sees birds and unknowingly dismounts tea from its pot, as if her heart is flying in the sky. Freedom makes a person happy and unchained. The scene of the rain in the village covers a different music of happiness and seems she is free from any chain now. Freedom also helps to raise hope in mind. Romanticism between Marium and Shawkat is extremely noticeable here.      A painting in the film Kokhono Asheni (1961)    Unemployment and Impoverishment:  Impoverishment is started in Shawkat’s house mainly after his father’s losing job and death. The first half of the movie abounded with happiness when there was income source. But from the second half, their poverty is started. There are many signs in the house. For example: torn sari, shortage of rice.    “Sister, I am unable to sleep, extremely hungry.”____Shawkat’s younger sister    Shawkat eats the available food but his two sisters are extremely hungry that is unknown to him. On the other hand he discusses about the proposal of wedding of him and Marium. But he never thinks about his sister Rokeya’s wedding. In one side he tells he won’t live without Marium but in other side he has to think about his sisters. It is like that problems from every side have caught him strongly and he is unable to free from this two problems. If he runs away with Marium, what will happen for his sisters? He cannot bear the weight of this toleration.              “Oh, life has been intolerable, I cannot more, will live if you die.”___ Shawkat    This is the last word of Shawkat with his sisters. After that there were no scopes to talk with them before that they die taking poison. Shawkat also takes poison and faces with death. I think there is no a single cause of this suicide case study rather a bunch of causes are responsible for this. Police did not find its source. But I swear these are social policy or politics, oppression to the oppressed by the elites, unemployment, impoverishment, and captivity of Marium etc.  Narrator:  “This event was occurred before a long time, perhaps,                     many months or many years, police had tried many                     to find the causes of this mystery, hadn’t. The residents                     of this area discussed a lot to find the causes to this death,                    didn’t get causes. No one came to know why did they die?                    How did?”    Conclusion:  There is no a single cause of this suicide case study rather it has a lot of causes behind this suicide case. Police did not get any clue of this case that why they died or how? But it is matter of investigation to find the causes. This analysis argues that social policy, dependence, oppression to the oppressed by the elites, captivity, unemployment, impoverishment etc are the main causes of this suicide case study. But different theoretical approaches will find different nearest causes to support its own argument. Here Kokhono Asheni means ‘never came’. It is a ‘circle of life’ thought school. Reality of life, dependence and impoverishment but there is no sign of optimism.    References  Nabil Hossain (2018) Kokhono Asheni: A Case Study, Dhaka Tribune  Wahed Sujan (2013) Movie Review: Kokhono Asheni, Kokhono Ashe Nai: Iccha Shunya Manush  Zakir Hossain Raju. (2014) Bangladesh Cinema and National Identity: In Search of the Modern?  Baxandall and Morawski (1937), Marxist Theory  James Monaco (1977), How to read a film: The Language of Film: Signs and Syntax  Chandler, D. (2007), Semiotics: The Basics  Storey, J. (2009) Cultural Theory and Popular Culture: An Introduction (Fifth Ed.). Harlow: Pearson Longman.  Films Cited  Raihan, J. (Producer & Director). (1970). Jibon Theke Neya [Motion Picture]  Jingo, M. (Producer), & Kurosawa, A. (Director). (1950). Rashomon [Motion Picture]  Haque, A. & M. (Producer) & Raihan, Z. (Director). (1961). Kokhono Asheni [Motion Picture]
Kokhono Asheni (1961) Bangladeshi Movie Poster


Md. Robiul Islam
Abstract: This is a critical review analysis of the cinema Kokhono Asheni (1961) directed by Zahir Raihan. This review is done to understand symbolism, power, romanticism, exploitation, unemployment and impoverishment in the film. This review argues that the occurrence of suicide is happened in Shawkat’s family for the upper psychic drivers. The review employs Marxist theory, Semiotics, Feminism and Psychoanalysis approaches to establish the argument.

Keywords: Symbolism, power, romanticism, exploitation, unemployment, impoverishment.
“You do creation. I reserve the creations….”                 ____Sultan
“I have no kindness to human, I hate human…”           ____Sultan
“How the life is thought precisely, actually it’s not like that…” ___ Shawkat
“I have to die bit by bit in this museum, no one can free me from here…” ___Marium
“We are all alone in this world, I am going on my own path, you choose your own” ___Shawkat

Impoverishment which leads them to commit suicide in the film but exploitation, unemployment and social tension have assisted a lot. Not only police but also no one found the source of suicide of them. A narrative quotation in the film is “on one found why and how they committed suicide, police has investigated the case but didn’t find any clue. But we shall try to find the source of the suicide occurrence through the upper characteristics attributed which will establish and symbolize the characterization of the characters.

From Previous Literature:
There is no important literature about this film and most of them are not arguable or there is not more valuable information in this article. There is huge lack of arguable information in these literatures. This article only describes two factors. One is the relationship of beauty with life and another is romanticism. Without these factors this article does not provide any arguable information. Sultan is the art collector. He is the worshiper of beauty of art. But he considers human [Marium] as the art. It has no life, it is like stone. It will always stay as stable. It is not dynamic. On the other hand romanticism is depicted in the rainy scene at village. Shawkat and Marium go to village for drawing painting with village scenery. But suddenly rain comes and their romantic scenery, dialogues are existed in the film. [Movie Review: Kokhono Asheni, Kokhono Ashe Nai by Wahed Sujan: 2013: Iccha Shunya Manush]
There are two main factors in the film used to understand its inner meanings. One is symbolism, here “Marium as the representative of the struggle of the Bangladeshis against the Pakistani oppressors” [Film Scholar Imran Firdaus], Sultan is the resemblance of Pakistani despot.
 Kokhono Asheni (1961) Bangladeshi Movie Poster      Md. Robiul Islam  Abstract: This is a critical review analysis of the cinema Kokhono Asheni (1961) directed by Zahir Raihan. This review is done to understand symbolism, power, romanticism, exploitation, unemployment and impoverishment in the film. This review argues that the occurrence of suicide is happened in Shawkat’s family for the upper psychic drivers. The review employs Marxist theory, Semiotics, Feminism and Psychoanalysis approaches to establish the argument.    Keywords: Symbolism, power, romanticism, exploitation, unemployment, impoverishment.  “You do creation. I reserve the creations….”                 ____Sultan  “I have no kindness to human, I hate human…”           ____Sultan  “How the life is thought precisely, actually it’s not like that…” ___ Shawkat  “I have to die bit by bit in this museum, no one can free me from here…” ___Marium  “We are all alone in this world, I am going on my own path, you choose your own” ___Shawkat    Impoverishment which leads them to commit suicide in the film but exploitation, unemployment and social tension have assisted a lot. Not only police but also no one found the source of suicide of them. A narrative quotation in the film is “on one found why and how they committed suicide, police has investigated the case but didn’t find any clue. But we shall try to find the source of the suicide occurrence through the upper characteristics attributed which will establish and symbolize the characterization of the characters.    From Previous Literature:  There is no important literature about this film and most of them are not arguable or there is not more valuable information in this article. There is huge lack of arguable information in these literatures. This article only describes two factors. One is the relationship of beauty with life and another is romanticism. Without these factors this article does not provide any arguable information. Sultan is the art collector. He is the worshiper of beauty of art. But he considers human [Marium] as the art. It has no life, it is like stone. It will always stay as stable. It is not dynamic. On the other hand romanticism is depicted in the rainy scene at village. Shawkat and Marium go to village for drawing painting with village scenery. But suddenly rain comes and their romantic scenery, dialogues are existed in the film. [Movie Review: Kokhono Asheni, Kokhono Ashe Nai by Wahed Sujan: 2013: Iccha Shunya Manush]  There are two main factors in the film used to understand its inner meanings. One is symbolism, here “Marium as the representative of the struggle of the Bangladeshis against the Pakistani oppressors” [Film Scholar Imran Firdaus], Sultan is the resemblance of Pakistani despot.    The Director, Zahir Raihan of Kokhono Asheni (1961) in the set    It describes the socio political tension existed in the 60s society between oppressors and oppressed. Marium is the ‘acquisition’ of Sultan that resembles dependent Bangladesh which is acquired by Pakistan in 1947 which never be freed from Pakistan. The first sequence and the last sequence of the film shows two sisters’ dead boy with their bother’s dead body. Actually it is considered the ‘circle of life’ which would never end. That means there is no means of freedom without oppression and social tension. But the means of independence is shown in Jibon Theke Neya (1970) another master piece directed by Zahir Raihan. Kokhono Asheni (1961) is directorial debut of Zahir Raihan. It did not do well in the box office but its substance, style, narrative elements are criticized positively by the critics. Actually this film shows the life of the average middle –class Bangladesh in Dhaka in 1960s. It is an experimental art film with social melodrama and it has a strong socio-political message for the society. [Kokhono Asheni: A Case Study by Nabil Hossain: 2018, Dhaka Tribune]  A research article about Kokhono Asheni (1961) is also available from Zakir Hossain Raju’s writing [‘Bangladesh Cinema and National Identity: In Search of the Modern? By Zakir Hossain Raju: 2014]    Theoretical Framework: This study employs Marxist theory, Semiotic cinema theory, Feminism and Psychoanalysis to understand life and view of the characters Sultan, Shawkat, Marium specially. This study also will find the symbolization the film through semiotic cinema theory.    Metaphorical Characterization  In semiotic cinema theory there are mainly two manners to understand any film’s meaning. One is denotative meaning and the other is connotative meaning. Denotative meaning is such a close approximation of reality. We do not have to strive to understand or know its meaning. Most of the signs of the cinema are denotative. But connotative meaning is metaphorical meaning. It gives us implicit meaning of a film or scene. According to Saussure, a sign consists of a signifier and a signified. Every character can be sign or costume, or any other object can be sign and signs are always identical. Here in the film Kokhono Asheni (1961) Sultan, Marium and Shawkat are different kinds of signs and they express different connotative meanings. For example: in metaphorical meaning, Sultan is the despot of Pakistan. Marium is the then exploited Bangladeshis who wants freedom but cannot but in other metaphorical meaning it seems dependent Bangladesh that is acquired by Pakistan in 1947 after state division. Shawkat and his sisters are also unemployed and impoverished people in then dependent Bangladesh. A film has three kinds of cinematic signs. For example; Icon, symbol and index. These are used to express a film’s total signs. Here icon is the photographs or paintings or sculpture used in the movie. Symbol is always conventional. Index expresses the relationship of signifier and signifier in the movie. The museum of the arts, paintings, sculpture means an elite collector or despot in capitalist society. Shawkat’s gorgeous jackets, hair styles are also index that means his status. But losing his father’s job and death, he is totally becomes unemployed and impoverished. Besides, Daniel Chandler points out three kinds of codes in the movie. They are social codes, interpretive codes and textual codes. These are also express film’s metaphorical meaning. For example; in social codes, there some divisions verbal codes, bodily codes, commodity codes and behavioral codes. In verbal codes, how Sultan, Marium and Shawkat talks to each other that would be understood. In bodily codes, bodily contact, proximity, gesture, posture etc of the characters would be understood. In commodity, what kinds of fashions or clothes they wear. Sultan is like elite person in the society. Marium is also like that. But Shawkat is selling his clothes in the shop for money to buy painting materials. In behavioral codes, we understood every character’s behavior. There are two kinds of behavior between the three characters. Romantic behavior contains between Marium and Shawkat. On the other hand, rude behavior stays between Sultan and Marium as well as Sultan and Shawkat. In textual codes we can understand romanticism, realism, music, sculpture, painting etc. we can understand human perception and ideology through interpretive codes. For example: the character’s perception and their own ideology. Metaphorically, this story depicts 1960s social political tension and exploitation to the Bangladeshis occurred by the Pakistanis. Here Sultan is the Pakistani despot and Marium represents her as exploited people. It depicts another meaning of the situation of the artists of then Pakistan. The artists were always with exploitation and socio-political tension. Bangladeshis did not get job in proportional rate. And the real situation, we can know when Shawkat moves from one office to another for a job but does not get. This scenery depicts the unemployment and impoverishment of the then Bangladeshi people ruled by the Pakistan.    Sanjiv Dutt in the film Kokhono Asheni (1961)     Power and exploitation:  In Marxist theory, there are for kinds of societies. They are Feudal society, tribal society, capitalist society and ancient society. But in this film, Zahir Raihan has depicted only capitalist society. According to Marxist theory, ‘the capitalist market transformed art into commodity which can be bought and sold.’    “I bought her only at 50tk in the very childhood. She is the cheapest collection in the museum.”________ Sultan   In the film art can be sold or bought but human? In the film human is also bought and sold by Sultan. According to Marxist theory, society is divided into two classes. One is ruling class. They always own the means of production and another is working class. They do not own the means of production. In the film Sultan owns the means of production. On the other hand Shawkat does not own the means of production. Sultan is an elite person or despot in the society. On the other hand Shawkat is only works for money and there is no relationship between him and his painting after sold. He is separated from the root and his productions. When exchange value is gone, he is nothing but an alienated person. He is alienated from his own products.            “You will come when intended but won’t touch.”____Sultan  That means the producer is alienated from his product. Sultan’s power is depicted in this dialogue.              “The petals go down when touched in the flower.”____ Sultan    Sultan always will keep the Marium as alive as he is worshiper of beauty. He always will stay aside her but will never touch her. He thinks beautiful things will always stay as static. He thinks Marium is like that flower or stone. But he never thinks that she has a heart. But she is exploited bit by bit in the museum by him. No one can free her from it.              “I have to die into the museum bit by bit. No one can free me from there.”____Marium    Sultan is the worshiper of beauty, art but never believe in human. He hates human. He thinks Marium as stone or as like painting or sculpture but never thinks her as human. As the museum is his all, his meditation, his ideology, his eternal pursuit. He has stolen many paintings and sculpture from others to decorate this museum. Ha has also murdered for this beauty or museum. Marium is breaking all the sculpture and paintings. She wants freedom from Sultan’s museum.  In this film his power and exploitation to Marium are depicted from this quotation.              “Break, break more, but you cannot break my mind”._____ Sultan    Sumita Devi in the film Kokhono Asheni (1961)     According to feminist theory:  It is the advocacy of women’s rights on the ground of the equality of the sexes. Feminists always argue that ‘society is patriarchal’. If we discuss about the equality of genders, this film is the perfect example of it. There is no right of women in the film only exploitation and oppression. Here Sultan is the oppressor and Marium is oppressed. And patriarchal society always wants to dominate women excessively. In feminist theory, difference between man and woman is gender which is a political construction not biological. But here in the film has shown it a biological construction. Actually how society treats women is the main factor in feminism. How women really are and what they really want are also under feminism. Here no one can think about equality in the film. But another noticeable matter is woman wants freedom. She is also a human. She is also involved in society. But patriarchal society does not allow her independency. Woman’s oppression is the result of the system of patriarchy. Another view of feminism is oppression is capitalism. Where there is woman oppression, there is capitalism. In the film, the capitalist society (Sultan) oppresses on Marium only for capital. And painting exhibition, sculpture exhibition are involved with capitalist attitude.    According to psychoanalytic film theory:            “Merry, I won’t live without you, Merry. Let’s run away anywhere tonight.”___ Shawkat    Three different psychoanalytic theories are got from Sigmund Freud, Jacques Lacan and Laura Mulvey’s psychoanalysis theory. These are interrelated with the psyche of the characters. Sigmund Freud depicts id, ego and super ego. These drivers are noticeable among the characters. Besides, Lacan’s ‘lack’ theory is also noticeable among them. Laura Mulvey’s ‘Gaze’ is observed in Marium, Shawkat and Sultan. “We are born with an id, while the ego develops through contact with culture which in turn produces the super ego.” [Sigmund Freud: 1984:362]. He argues that our nature is governed by culture and human nature is not something innate or unchangeable. We observe in the movie the character of Sultan; it is unchangeable and is governed by culture his own culture. Freud argues that id is governed by pleasure principle and ego is governed by the reality principle. Id driver is noticed in every character. But ego or super ego is observed only in Shawkat and Marium. Id works in unconscious but ego and super ego work unconscious. Sultan does not know what he says is right or wrong for the society. There is no judgment into it. But Marium and Shawkat are also involved in id but their ego and super ego are strong they observe their reality. They think everything consciously.    According to Jacques Lacan, ‘we are born into a condition of ‘lack’ and subsequently spend the rest of our lives trying to overcome this condition. ‘Lack’ is experienced in different things, but it is always a non representable expression of the fundamental condition of being human’. We notice this lack in every character’s mind. There is lack in Sultan’s mind. He desires worshiping of beauty. Marium desires independence of movement and Shawkat desires job and love of Marium. But without Sultan’s desire, Mariuma and Shawkat’s desire are hidden in mind. So, there creates a lack in their mind.    Read More About Kokhono Asheni (1961)  Laura Mulvey’s (1975) essay ‘Visual pleasure and narrative cinema’ she depicts her ‘gaze’. According to her, female character is used in cinema for fundamentally two reasons. (i) She is the object of male desire and (ii) she is the signifier of the threat of castration. But in this film, Kokhono Asheni (1961) two reasons are observed. Here Sultan worships her for her beauty. That means she is the desire of him though she is non touchable. On the other hand she is also a desire of Shawkat. That would be love or romance but it is also a kind of desire. Laura Mulvey argues that every gaze is sexual anyway it is schopophilia. On the other hand she is the signifier in the movie. She is woman that means not man or nothing. Feminism argues that in most patriarchal society woman is though as not man or nothing. But is political construction, not biological. Another view is she is weak in nature [Rashomon: 1950)]. So, she has no power like man.  ‘In a world structured by sexual imbalance the pleasure of the gaze has been separated into two different positions; men look and women exhibit (to-be-looked-at-ness).’ This view is also receivable in this analysis. As there is huge sexual imbalance, equality in the movie. Zahir Raihan has pointed out its root from this perspective.      Khan Ataur Rahman and Sumita Devi in Kokhono Asheni (1961) Movie    Realism and Romanticism:  Kokhono Asheni (1961) is a kind of realist and romantic film though romantic and realist scenes are little. Love relationship between Shawkat and Marium is the fundamental factor of romanticism here. For example: rainy scenes in the village and the romantic moment in the city roads and romantic moment in the house. But these are really little in the film for impoverishment and its results.    “Whom I will love, can dance, sing. My mind will fly in the far like goose with her melody.”_____ Shawkat    Marium does not get any scope to move away. She must stay alone in the museum. But when she is introduced with Shawkat, their relation is broadened in which time they don’t know. Mamun also loves Marium but he cannot express it to Marium. Shawkat has expressed love proposal to before Mamun.              “You are my friend. There is nothing to hide from you, we love each other.”____Shawkat    But their romantic moment is spoilt when he stands on strong reality. Even he cannot tolerate the reality of life. Here unemployment and impoverishment are the fundamental factors to interrupt their love relationship. He is consistent to run away with Marium in other area but in vain to critical reality of life.    “It is easy to tell but hard to run away, haven’t you seen my two sisters. How will we run away leaving them?”____ Shawkat    Shawkat is an artist. But his income is very little. Family depends on his father’s job salary. His lifestyle was like elite person before. His fashion, hairstyles were like elite person. But he is faced with serious impoverishment when his father loses job and his death. He has found job a lot but every company’s post is fulfilled. An unemployed person like him, at last sells his gorgeous jacket in the market for impoverishment. He has experienced the seriousness of life reality.              “How the life is thought precisely, actually it’s not like that, Merry…” ___ Shawkat     Before his father’s death, Shawkat and his friends always was on hanging at a café. But after understanding the reality of life with impoverishment, he cannot tolerate his former happy moments or dialogues. A customer in the café is discussing against artists in this country with his friends wearing a glass. But Shawkat takes down his glass and tells.              “Try to observe the world without glass, you will learn a lot.”____ Shawkat    Another thing we can understand in the film ‘freedom from captivity’. Marium is in chain for the whole life but when she comes in village and for the first time sees birds and unknowingly dismounts tea from its pot, as if her heart is flying in the sky. Freedom makes a person happy and unchained. The scene of the rain in the village covers a different music of happiness and seems she is free from any chain now. Freedom also helps to raise hope in mind. Romanticism between Marium and Shawkat is extremely noticeable here.      A painting in the film Kokhono Asheni (1961)    Unemployment and Impoverishment:  Impoverishment is started in Shawkat’s house mainly after his father’s losing job and death. The first half of the movie abounded with happiness when there was income source. But from the second half, their poverty is started. There are many signs in the house. For example: torn sari, shortage of rice.    “Sister, I am unable to sleep, extremely hungry.”____Shawkat’s younger sister    Shawkat eats the available food but his two sisters are extremely hungry that is unknown to him. On the other hand he discusses about the proposal of wedding of him and Marium. But he never thinks about his sister Rokeya’s wedding. In one side he tells he won’t live without Marium but in other side he has to think about his sisters. It is like that problems from every side have caught him strongly and he is unable to free from this two problems. If he runs away with Marium, what will happen for his sisters? He cannot bear the weight of this toleration.              “Oh, life has been intolerable, I cannot more, will live if you die.”___ Shawkat    This is the last word of Shawkat with his sisters. After that there were no scopes to talk with them before that they die taking poison. Shawkat also takes poison and faces with death. I think there is no a single cause of this suicide case study rather a bunch of causes are responsible for this. Police did not find its source. But I swear these are social policy or politics, oppression to the oppressed by the elites, unemployment, impoverishment, and captivity of Marium etc.  Narrator:  “This event was occurred before a long time, perhaps,                     many months or many years, police had tried many                     to find the causes of this mystery, hadn’t. The residents                     of this area discussed a lot to find the causes to this death,                    didn’t get causes. No one came to know why did they die?                    How did?”    Conclusion:  There is no a single cause of this suicide case study rather it has a lot of causes behind this suicide case. Police did not get any clue of this case that why they died or how? But it is matter of investigation to find the causes. This analysis argues that social policy, dependence, oppression to the oppressed by the elites, captivity, unemployment, impoverishment etc are the main causes of this suicide case study. But different theoretical approaches will find different nearest causes to support its own argument. Here Kokhono Asheni means ‘never came’. It is a ‘circle of life’ thought school. Reality of life, dependence and impoverishment but there is no sign of optimism.    References  Nabil Hossain (2018) Kokhono Asheni: A Case Study, Dhaka Tribune  Wahed Sujan (2013) Movie Review: Kokhono Asheni, Kokhono Ashe Nai: Iccha Shunya Manush  Zakir Hossain Raju. (2014) Bangladesh Cinema and National Identity: In Search of the Modern?  Baxandall and Morawski (1937), Marxist Theory  James Monaco (1977), How to read a film: The Language of Film: Signs and Syntax  Chandler, D. (2007), Semiotics: The Basics  Storey, J. (2009) Cultural Theory and Popular Culture: An Introduction (Fifth Ed.). Harlow: Pearson Longman.  Films Cited  Raihan, J. (Producer & Director). (1970). Jibon Theke Neya [Motion Picture]  Jingo, M. (Producer), & Kurosawa, A. (Director). (1950). Rashomon [Motion Picture]  Haque, A. & M. (Producer) & Raihan, Z. (Director). (1961). Kokhono Asheni [Motion Picture]
The Director, Zahir Raihan of Kokhono Asheni (1961) in the set

It describes the socio political tension existed in the 60s society between oppressors and oppressed. Marium is the ‘acquisition’ of Sultan that resembles dependent Bangladesh which is acquired by Pakistan in 1947 which never be freed from Pakistan. The first sequence and the last sequence of the film shows two sisters’ dead boy with their bother’s dead body. Actually it is considered the ‘circle of life’ which would never end. That means there is no means of freedom without oppression and social tension. But the means of independence is shown in Jibon Theke Neya (1970) another master piece directed by Zahir Raihan. Kokhono Asheni (1961) is directorial debut of Zahir Raihan. It did not do well in the box office but its substance, style, narrative elements are criticized positively by the critics. Actually this film shows the life of the average middle –class Bangladesh in Dhaka in 1960s. It is an experimental art film with social melodrama and it has a strong socio-political message for the society. [Kokhono Asheni: A Case Study by Nabil Hossain: 2018, Dhaka Tribune]
A research article about Kokhono Asheni (1961) is also available from Zakir Hossain Raju’s writing [‘Bangladesh Cinema and National Identity: In Search of the Modern? By Zakir Hossain Raju: 2014]

Theoretical Framework: This study employs Marxist theory, Semiotic cinema theory, Feminism and Psychoanalysis to understand life and view of the characters Sultan, Shawkat, Marium specially. This study also will find the symbolization the film through semiotic cinema theory.

Metaphorical Characterization
In semiotic cinema theory there are mainly two manners to understand any film’s meaning. One is denotative meaning and the other is connotative meaning. Denotative meaning is such a close approximation of reality. We do not have to strive to understand or know its meaning. Most of the signs of the cinema are denotative. But connotative meaning is metaphorical meaning. It gives us implicit meaning of a film or scene. According to Saussure, a sign consists of a signifier and a signified. Every character can be sign or costume, or any other object can be sign and signs are always identical. Here in the film Kokhono Asheni (1961) Sultan, Marium and Shawkat are different kinds of signs and they express different connotative meanings. For example: in metaphorical meaning, Sultan is the despot of Pakistan. Marium is the then exploited Bangladeshis who wants freedom but cannot but in other metaphorical meaning it seems dependent Bangladesh that is acquired by Pakistan in 1947 after state division. Shawkat and his sisters are also unemployed and impoverished people in then dependent Bangladesh. A film has three kinds of cinematic signs. For example; Icon, symbol and index. These are used to express a film’s total signs. Here icon is the photographs or paintings or sculpture used in the movie. Symbol is always conventional. Index expresses the relationship of signifier and signifier in the movie. The museum of the arts, paintings, sculpture means an elite collector or despot in capitalist society. Shawkat’s gorgeous jackets, hair styles are also index that means his status. But losing his father’s job and death, he is totally becomes unemployed and impoverished. Besides, Daniel Chandler points out three kinds of codes in the movie. They are social codes, interpretive codes and textual codes. These are also express film’s metaphorical meaning. For example; in social codes, there some divisions verbal codes, bodily codes, commodity codes and behavioral codes. In verbal codes, how Sultan, Marium and Shawkat talks to each other that would be understood. In bodily codes, bodily contact, proximity, gesture, posture etc of the characters would be understood. In commodity, what kinds of fashions or clothes they wear. Sultan is like elite person in the society. Marium is also like that. But Shawkat is selling his clothes in the shop for money to buy painting materials. In behavioral codes, we understood every character’s behavior. There are two kinds of behavior between the three characters. Romantic behavior contains between Marium and Shawkat. On the other hand, rude behavior stays between Sultan and Marium as well as Sultan and Shawkat. In textual codes we can understand romanticism, realism, music, sculpture, painting etc. we can understand human perception and ideology through interpretive codes. For example: the character’s perception and their own ideology. Metaphorically, this story depicts 1960s social political tension and exploitation to the Bangladeshis occurred by the Pakistanis. Here Sultan is the Pakistani despot and Marium represents her as exploited people. It depicts another meaning of the situation of the artists of then Pakistan. The artists were always with exploitation and socio-political tension. Bangladeshis did not get job in proportional rate. And the real situation, we can know when Shawkat moves from one office to another for a job but does not get. This scenery depicts the unemployment and impoverishment of the then Bangladeshi people ruled by the Pakistan.
 Kokhono Asheni (1961) Bangladeshi Movie Poster      Md. Robiul Islam  Abstract: This is a critical review analysis of the cinema Kokhono Asheni (1961) directed by Zahir Raihan. This review is done to understand symbolism, power, romanticism, exploitation, unemployment and impoverishment in the film. This review argues that the occurrence of suicide is happened in Shawkat’s family for the upper psychic drivers. The review employs Marxist theory, Semiotics, Feminism and Psychoanalysis approaches to establish the argument.    Keywords: Symbolism, power, romanticism, exploitation, unemployment, impoverishment.  “You do creation. I reserve the creations….”                 ____Sultan  “I have no kindness to human, I hate human…”           ____Sultan  “How the life is thought precisely, actually it’s not like that…” ___ Shawkat  “I have to die bit by bit in this museum, no one can free me from here…” ___Marium  “We are all alone in this world, I am going on my own path, you choose your own” ___Shawkat    Impoverishment which leads them to commit suicide in the film but exploitation, unemployment and social tension have assisted a lot. Not only police but also no one found the source of suicide of them. A narrative quotation in the film is “on one found why and how they committed suicide, police has investigated the case but didn’t find any clue. But we shall try to find the source of the suicide occurrence through the upper characteristics attributed which will establish and symbolize the characterization of the characters.    From Previous Literature:  There is no important literature about this film and most of them are not arguable or there is not more valuable information in this article. There is huge lack of arguable information in these literatures. This article only describes two factors. One is the relationship of beauty with life and another is romanticism. Without these factors this article does not provide any arguable information. Sultan is the art collector. He is the worshiper of beauty of art. But he considers human [Marium] as the art. It has no life, it is like stone. It will always stay as stable. It is not dynamic. On the other hand romanticism is depicted in the rainy scene at village. Shawkat and Marium go to village for drawing painting with village scenery. But suddenly rain comes and their romantic scenery, dialogues are existed in the film. [Movie Review: Kokhono Asheni, Kokhono Ashe Nai by Wahed Sujan: 2013: Iccha Shunya Manush]  There are two main factors in the film used to understand its inner meanings. One is symbolism, here “Marium as the representative of the struggle of the Bangladeshis against the Pakistani oppressors” [Film Scholar Imran Firdaus], Sultan is the resemblance of Pakistani despot.    The Director, Zahir Raihan of Kokhono Asheni (1961) in the set    It describes the socio political tension existed in the 60s society between oppressors and oppressed. Marium is the ‘acquisition’ of Sultan that resembles dependent Bangladesh which is acquired by Pakistan in 1947 which never be freed from Pakistan. The first sequence and the last sequence of the film shows two sisters’ dead boy with their bother’s dead body. Actually it is considered the ‘circle of life’ which would never end. That means there is no means of freedom without oppression and social tension. But the means of independence is shown in Jibon Theke Neya (1970) another master piece directed by Zahir Raihan. Kokhono Asheni (1961) is directorial debut of Zahir Raihan. It did not do well in the box office but its substance, style, narrative elements are criticized positively by the critics. Actually this film shows the life of the average middle –class Bangladesh in Dhaka in 1960s. It is an experimental art film with social melodrama and it has a strong socio-political message for the society. [Kokhono Asheni: A Case Study by Nabil Hossain: 2018, Dhaka Tribune]  A research article about Kokhono Asheni (1961) is also available from Zakir Hossain Raju’s writing [‘Bangladesh Cinema and National Identity: In Search of the Modern? By Zakir Hossain Raju: 2014]    Theoretical Framework: This study employs Marxist theory, Semiotic cinema theory, Feminism and Psychoanalysis to understand life and view of the characters Sultan, Shawkat, Marium specially. This study also will find the symbolization the film through semiotic cinema theory.    Metaphorical Characterization  In semiotic cinema theory there are mainly two manners to understand any film’s meaning. One is denotative meaning and the other is connotative meaning. Denotative meaning is such a close approximation of reality. We do not have to strive to understand or know its meaning. Most of the signs of the cinema are denotative. But connotative meaning is metaphorical meaning. It gives us implicit meaning of a film or scene. According to Saussure, a sign consists of a signifier and a signified. Every character can be sign or costume, or any other object can be sign and signs are always identical. Here in the film Kokhono Asheni (1961) Sultan, Marium and Shawkat are different kinds of signs and they express different connotative meanings. For example: in metaphorical meaning, Sultan is the despot of Pakistan. Marium is the then exploited Bangladeshis who wants freedom but cannot but in other metaphorical meaning it seems dependent Bangladesh that is acquired by Pakistan in 1947 after state division. Shawkat and his sisters are also unemployed and impoverished people in then dependent Bangladesh. A film has three kinds of cinematic signs. For example; Icon, symbol and index. These are used to express a film’s total signs. Here icon is the photographs or paintings or sculpture used in the movie. Symbol is always conventional. Index expresses the relationship of signifier and signifier in the movie. The museum of the arts, paintings, sculpture means an elite collector or despot in capitalist society. Shawkat’s gorgeous jackets, hair styles are also index that means his status. But losing his father’s job and death, he is totally becomes unemployed and impoverished. Besides, Daniel Chandler points out three kinds of codes in the movie. They are social codes, interpretive codes and textual codes. These are also express film’s metaphorical meaning. For example; in social codes, there some divisions verbal codes, bodily codes, commodity codes and behavioral codes. In verbal codes, how Sultan, Marium and Shawkat talks to each other that would be understood. In bodily codes, bodily contact, proximity, gesture, posture etc of the characters would be understood. In commodity, what kinds of fashions or clothes they wear. Sultan is like elite person in the society. Marium is also like that. But Shawkat is selling his clothes in the shop for money to buy painting materials. In behavioral codes, we understood every character’s behavior. There are two kinds of behavior between the three characters. Romantic behavior contains between Marium and Shawkat. On the other hand, rude behavior stays between Sultan and Marium as well as Sultan and Shawkat. In textual codes we can understand romanticism, realism, music, sculpture, painting etc. we can understand human perception and ideology through interpretive codes. For example: the character’s perception and their own ideology. Metaphorically, this story depicts 1960s social political tension and exploitation to the Bangladeshis occurred by the Pakistanis. Here Sultan is the Pakistani despot and Marium represents her as exploited people. It depicts another meaning of the situation of the artists of then Pakistan. The artists were always with exploitation and socio-political tension. Bangladeshis did not get job in proportional rate. And the real situation, we can know when Shawkat moves from one office to another for a job but does not get. This scenery depicts the unemployment and impoverishment of the then Bangladeshi people ruled by the Pakistan.    Sanjiv Dutt in the film Kokhono Asheni (1961)     Power and exploitation:  In Marxist theory, there are for kinds of societies. They are Feudal society, tribal society, capitalist society and ancient society. But in this film, Zahir Raihan has depicted only capitalist society. According to Marxist theory, ‘the capitalist market transformed art into commodity which can be bought and sold.’    “I bought her only at 50tk in the very childhood. She is the cheapest collection in the museum.”________ Sultan   In the film art can be sold or bought but human? In the film human is also bought and sold by Sultan. According to Marxist theory, society is divided into two classes. One is ruling class. They always own the means of production and another is working class. They do not own the means of production. In the film Sultan owns the means of production. On the other hand Shawkat does not own the means of production. Sultan is an elite person or despot in the society. On the other hand Shawkat is only works for money and there is no relationship between him and his painting after sold. He is separated from the root and his productions. When exchange value is gone, he is nothing but an alienated person. He is alienated from his own products.            “You will come when intended but won’t touch.”____Sultan  That means the producer is alienated from his product. Sultan’s power is depicted in this dialogue.              “The petals go down when touched in the flower.”____ Sultan    Sultan always will keep the Marium as alive as he is worshiper of beauty. He always will stay aside her but will never touch her. He thinks beautiful things will always stay as static. He thinks Marium is like that flower or stone. But he never thinks that she has a heart. But she is exploited bit by bit in the museum by him. No one can free her from it.              “I have to die into the museum bit by bit. No one can free me from there.”____Marium    Sultan is the worshiper of beauty, art but never believe in human. He hates human. He thinks Marium as stone or as like painting or sculpture but never thinks her as human. As the museum is his all, his meditation, his ideology, his eternal pursuit. He has stolen many paintings and sculpture from others to decorate this museum. Ha has also murdered for this beauty or museum. Marium is breaking all the sculpture and paintings. She wants freedom from Sultan’s museum.  In this film his power and exploitation to Marium are depicted from this quotation.              “Break, break more, but you cannot break my mind”._____ Sultan    Sumita Devi in the film Kokhono Asheni (1961)     According to feminist theory:  It is the advocacy of women’s rights on the ground of the equality of the sexes. Feminists always argue that ‘society is patriarchal’. If we discuss about the equality of genders, this film is the perfect example of it. There is no right of women in the film only exploitation and oppression. Here Sultan is the oppressor and Marium is oppressed. And patriarchal society always wants to dominate women excessively. In feminist theory, difference between man and woman is gender which is a political construction not biological. But here in the film has shown it a biological construction. Actually how society treats women is the main factor in feminism. How women really are and what they really want are also under feminism. Here no one can think about equality in the film. But another noticeable matter is woman wants freedom. She is also a human. She is also involved in society. But patriarchal society does not allow her independency. Woman’s oppression is the result of the system of patriarchy. Another view of feminism is oppression is capitalism. Where there is woman oppression, there is capitalism. In the film, the capitalist society (Sultan) oppresses on Marium only for capital. And painting exhibition, sculpture exhibition are involved with capitalist attitude.    According to psychoanalytic film theory:            “Merry, I won’t live without you, Merry. Let’s run away anywhere tonight.”___ Shawkat    Three different psychoanalytic theories are got from Sigmund Freud, Jacques Lacan and Laura Mulvey’s psychoanalysis theory. These are interrelated with the psyche of the characters. Sigmund Freud depicts id, ego and super ego. These drivers are noticeable among the characters. Besides, Lacan’s ‘lack’ theory is also noticeable among them. Laura Mulvey’s ‘Gaze’ is observed in Marium, Shawkat and Sultan. “We are born with an id, while the ego develops through contact with culture which in turn produces the super ego.” [Sigmund Freud: 1984:362]. He argues that our nature is governed by culture and human nature is not something innate or unchangeable. We observe in the movie the character of Sultan; it is unchangeable and is governed by culture his own culture. Freud argues that id is governed by pleasure principle and ego is governed by the reality principle. Id driver is noticed in every character. But ego or super ego is observed only in Shawkat and Marium. Id works in unconscious but ego and super ego work unconscious. Sultan does not know what he says is right or wrong for the society. There is no judgment into it. But Marium and Shawkat are also involved in id but their ego and super ego are strong they observe their reality. They think everything consciously.    According to Jacques Lacan, ‘we are born into a condition of ‘lack’ and subsequently spend the rest of our lives trying to overcome this condition. ‘Lack’ is experienced in different things, but it is always a non representable expression of the fundamental condition of being human’. We notice this lack in every character’s mind. There is lack in Sultan’s mind. He desires worshiping of beauty. Marium desires independence of movement and Shawkat desires job and love of Marium. But without Sultan’s desire, Mariuma and Shawkat’s desire are hidden in mind. So, there creates a lack in their mind.    Read More About Kokhono Asheni (1961)  Laura Mulvey’s (1975) essay ‘Visual pleasure and narrative cinema’ she depicts her ‘gaze’. According to her, female character is used in cinema for fundamentally two reasons. (i) She is the object of male desire and (ii) she is the signifier of the threat of castration. But in this film, Kokhono Asheni (1961) two reasons are observed. Here Sultan worships her for her beauty. That means she is the desire of him though she is non touchable. On the other hand she is also a desire of Shawkat. That would be love or romance but it is also a kind of desire. Laura Mulvey argues that every gaze is sexual anyway it is schopophilia. On the other hand she is the signifier in the movie. She is woman that means not man or nothing. Feminism argues that in most patriarchal society woman is though as not man or nothing. But is political construction, not biological. Another view is she is weak in nature [Rashomon: 1950)]. So, she has no power like man.  ‘In a world structured by sexual imbalance the pleasure of the gaze has been separated into two different positions; men look and women exhibit (to-be-looked-at-ness).’ This view is also receivable in this analysis. As there is huge sexual imbalance, equality in the movie. Zahir Raihan has pointed out its root from this perspective.      Khan Ataur Rahman and Sumita Devi in Kokhono Asheni (1961) Movie    Realism and Romanticism:  Kokhono Asheni (1961) is a kind of realist and romantic film though romantic and realist scenes are little. Love relationship between Shawkat and Marium is the fundamental factor of romanticism here. For example: rainy scenes in the village and the romantic moment in the city roads and romantic moment in the house. But these are really little in the film for impoverishment and its results.    “Whom I will love, can dance, sing. My mind will fly in the far like goose with her melody.”_____ Shawkat    Marium does not get any scope to move away. She must stay alone in the museum. But when she is introduced with Shawkat, their relation is broadened in which time they don’t know. Mamun also loves Marium but he cannot express it to Marium. Shawkat has expressed love proposal to before Mamun.              “You are my friend. There is nothing to hide from you, we love each other.”____Shawkat    But their romantic moment is spoilt when he stands on strong reality. Even he cannot tolerate the reality of life. Here unemployment and impoverishment are the fundamental factors to interrupt their love relationship. He is consistent to run away with Marium in other area but in vain to critical reality of life.    “It is easy to tell but hard to run away, haven’t you seen my two sisters. How will we run away leaving them?”____ Shawkat    Shawkat is an artist. But his income is very little. Family depends on his father’s job salary. His lifestyle was like elite person before. His fashion, hairstyles were like elite person. But he is faced with serious impoverishment when his father loses job and his death. He has found job a lot but every company’s post is fulfilled. An unemployed person like him, at last sells his gorgeous jacket in the market for impoverishment. He has experienced the seriousness of life reality.              “How the life is thought precisely, actually it’s not like that, Merry…” ___ Shawkat     Before his father’s death, Shawkat and his friends always was on hanging at a café. But after understanding the reality of life with impoverishment, he cannot tolerate his former happy moments or dialogues. A customer in the café is discussing against artists in this country with his friends wearing a glass. But Shawkat takes down his glass and tells.              “Try to observe the world without glass, you will learn a lot.”____ Shawkat    Another thing we can understand in the film ‘freedom from captivity’. Marium is in chain for the whole life but when she comes in village and for the first time sees birds and unknowingly dismounts tea from its pot, as if her heart is flying in the sky. Freedom makes a person happy and unchained. The scene of the rain in the village covers a different music of happiness and seems she is free from any chain now. Freedom also helps to raise hope in mind. Romanticism between Marium and Shawkat is extremely noticeable here.      A painting in the film Kokhono Asheni (1961)    Unemployment and Impoverishment:  Impoverishment is started in Shawkat’s house mainly after his father’s losing job and death. The first half of the movie abounded with happiness when there was income source. But from the second half, their poverty is started. There are many signs in the house. For example: torn sari, shortage of rice.    “Sister, I am unable to sleep, extremely hungry.”____Shawkat’s younger sister    Shawkat eats the available food but his two sisters are extremely hungry that is unknown to him. On the other hand he discusses about the proposal of wedding of him and Marium. But he never thinks about his sister Rokeya’s wedding. In one side he tells he won’t live without Marium but in other side he has to think about his sisters. It is like that problems from every side have caught him strongly and he is unable to free from this two problems. If he runs away with Marium, what will happen for his sisters? He cannot bear the weight of this toleration.              “Oh, life has been intolerable, I cannot more, will live if you die.”___ Shawkat    This is the last word of Shawkat with his sisters. After that there were no scopes to talk with them before that they die taking poison. Shawkat also takes poison and faces with death. I think there is no a single cause of this suicide case study rather a bunch of causes are responsible for this. Police did not find its source. But I swear these are social policy or politics, oppression to the oppressed by the elites, unemployment, impoverishment, and captivity of Marium etc.  Narrator:  “This event was occurred before a long time, perhaps,                     many months or many years, police had tried many                     to find the causes of this mystery, hadn’t. The residents                     of this area discussed a lot to find the causes to this death,                    didn’t get causes. No one came to know why did they die?                    How did?”    Conclusion:  There is no a single cause of this suicide case study rather it has a lot of causes behind this suicide case. Police did not get any clue of this case that why they died or how? But it is matter of investigation to find the causes. This analysis argues that social policy, dependence, oppression to the oppressed by the elites, captivity, unemployment, impoverishment etc are the main causes of this suicide case study. But different theoretical approaches will find different nearest causes to support its own argument. Here Kokhono Asheni means ‘never came’. It is a ‘circle of life’ thought school. Reality of life, dependence and impoverishment but there is no sign of optimism.    References  Nabil Hossain (2018) Kokhono Asheni: A Case Study, Dhaka Tribune  Wahed Sujan (2013) Movie Review: Kokhono Asheni, Kokhono Ashe Nai: Iccha Shunya Manush  Zakir Hossain Raju. (2014) Bangladesh Cinema and National Identity: In Search of the Modern?  Baxandall and Morawski (1937), Marxist Theory  James Monaco (1977), How to read a film: The Language of Film: Signs and Syntax  Chandler, D. (2007), Semiotics: The Basics  Storey, J. (2009) Cultural Theory and Popular Culture: An Introduction (Fifth Ed.). Harlow: Pearson Longman.  Films Cited  Raihan, J. (Producer & Director). (1970). Jibon Theke Neya [Motion Picture]  Jingo, M. (Producer), & Kurosawa, A. (Director). (1950). Rashomon [Motion Picture]  Haque, A. & M. (Producer) & Raihan, Z. (Director). (1961). Kokhono Asheni [Motion Picture]
Sanjiv Dutt in the film Kokhono Asheni (1961) 

Power and exploitation:
In Marxist theory, there are for kinds of societies. They are Feudal society, tribal society, capitalist society and ancient society. But in this film, Zahir Raihan has depicted only capitalist society. According to Marxist theory, ‘the capitalist market transformed art into commodity which can be bought and sold.’

“I bought her only at 50tk in the very childhood. She is the cheapest collection in the museum.”________ Sultan 
In the film art can be sold or bought but human? In the film human is also bought and sold by Sultan. According to Marxist theory, society is divided into two classes. One is ruling class. They always own the means of production and another is working class. They do not own the means of production. In the film Sultan owns the means of production. On the other hand Shawkat does not own the means of production. Sultan is an elite person or despot in the society. On the other hand Shawkat is only works for money and there is no relationship between him and his painting after sold. He is separated from the root and his productions. When exchange value is gone, he is nothing but an alienated person. He is alienated from his own products.
          “You will come when intended but won’t touch.”____Sultan
That means the producer is alienated from his product. Sultan’s power is depicted in this dialogue.

          “The petals go down when touched in the flower.”____ Sultan

Sultan always will keep the Marium as alive as he is worshiper of beauty. He always will stay aside her but will never touch her. He thinks beautiful things will always stay as static. He thinks Marium is like that flower or stone. But he never thinks that she has a heart. But she is exploited bit by bit in the museum by him. No one can free her from it.

          “I have to die into the museum bit by bit. No one can free me from there.”____Marium

Sultan is the worshiper of beauty, art but never believe in human. He hates human. He thinks Marium as stone or as like painting or sculpture but never thinks her as human. As the museum is his all, his meditation, his ideology, his eternal pursuit. He has stolen many paintings and sculpture from others to decorate this museum. Ha has also murdered for this beauty or museum. Marium is breaking all the sculpture and paintings. She wants freedom from Sultan’s museum.  In this film his power and exploitation to Marium are depicted from this quotation.

          “Break, break more, but you cannot break my mind”._____ Sultan
 Kokhono Asheni (1961) Bangladeshi Movie Poster      Md. Robiul Islam  Abstract: This is a critical review analysis of the cinema Kokhono Asheni (1961) directed by Zahir Raihan. This review is done to understand symbolism, power, romanticism, exploitation, unemployment and impoverishment in the film. This review argues that the occurrence of suicide is happened in Shawkat’s family for the upper psychic drivers. The review employs Marxist theory, Semiotics, Feminism and Psychoanalysis approaches to establish the argument.    Keywords: Symbolism, power, romanticism, exploitation, unemployment, impoverishment.  “You do creation. I reserve the creations….”                 ____Sultan  “I have no kindness to human, I hate human…”           ____Sultan  “How the life is thought precisely, actually it’s not like that…” ___ Shawkat  “I have to die bit by bit in this museum, no one can free me from here…” ___Marium  “We are all alone in this world, I am going on my own path, you choose your own” ___Shawkat    Impoverishment which leads them to commit suicide in the film but exploitation, unemployment and social tension have assisted a lot. Not only police but also no one found the source of suicide of them. A narrative quotation in the film is “on one found why and how they committed suicide, police has investigated the case but didn’t find any clue. But we shall try to find the source of the suicide occurrence through the upper characteristics attributed which will establish and symbolize the characterization of the characters.    From Previous Literature:  There is no important literature about this film and most of them are not arguable or there is not more valuable information in this article. There is huge lack of arguable information in these literatures. This article only describes two factors. One is the relationship of beauty with life and another is romanticism. Without these factors this article does not provide any arguable information. Sultan is the art collector. He is the worshiper of beauty of art. But he considers human [Marium] as the art. It has no life, it is like stone. It will always stay as stable. It is not dynamic. On the other hand romanticism is depicted in the rainy scene at village. Shawkat and Marium go to village for drawing painting with village scenery. But suddenly rain comes and their romantic scenery, dialogues are existed in the film. [Movie Review: Kokhono Asheni, Kokhono Ashe Nai by Wahed Sujan: 2013: Iccha Shunya Manush]  There are two main factors in the film used to understand its inner meanings. One is symbolism, here “Marium as the representative of the struggle of the Bangladeshis against the Pakistani oppressors” [Film Scholar Imran Firdaus], Sultan is the resemblance of Pakistani despot.    The Director, Zahir Raihan of Kokhono Asheni (1961) in the set    It describes the socio political tension existed in the 60s society between oppressors and oppressed. Marium is the ‘acquisition’ of Sultan that resembles dependent Bangladesh which is acquired by Pakistan in 1947 which never be freed from Pakistan. The first sequence and the last sequence of the film shows two sisters’ dead boy with their bother’s dead body. Actually it is considered the ‘circle of life’ which would never end. That means there is no means of freedom without oppression and social tension. But the means of independence is shown in Jibon Theke Neya (1970) another master piece directed by Zahir Raihan. Kokhono Asheni (1961) is directorial debut of Zahir Raihan. It did not do well in the box office but its substance, style, narrative elements are criticized positively by the critics. Actually this film shows the life of the average middle –class Bangladesh in Dhaka in 1960s. It is an experimental art film with social melodrama and it has a strong socio-political message for the society. [Kokhono Asheni: A Case Study by Nabil Hossain: 2018, Dhaka Tribune]  A research article about Kokhono Asheni (1961) is also available from Zakir Hossain Raju’s writing [‘Bangladesh Cinema and National Identity: In Search of the Modern? By Zakir Hossain Raju: 2014]    Theoretical Framework: This study employs Marxist theory, Semiotic cinema theory, Feminism and Psychoanalysis to understand life and view of the characters Sultan, Shawkat, Marium specially. This study also will find the symbolization the film through semiotic cinema theory.    Metaphorical Characterization  In semiotic cinema theory there are mainly two manners to understand any film’s meaning. One is denotative meaning and the other is connotative meaning. Denotative meaning is such a close approximation of reality. We do not have to strive to understand or know its meaning. Most of the signs of the cinema are denotative. But connotative meaning is metaphorical meaning. It gives us implicit meaning of a film or scene. According to Saussure, a sign consists of a signifier and a signified. Every character can be sign or costume, or any other object can be sign and signs are always identical. Here in the film Kokhono Asheni (1961) Sultan, Marium and Shawkat are different kinds of signs and they express different connotative meanings. For example: in metaphorical meaning, Sultan is the despot of Pakistan. Marium is the then exploited Bangladeshis who wants freedom but cannot but in other metaphorical meaning it seems dependent Bangladesh that is acquired by Pakistan in 1947 after state division. Shawkat and his sisters are also unemployed and impoverished people in then dependent Bangladesh. A film has three kinds of cinematic signs. For example; Icon, symbol and index. These are used to express a film’s total signs. Here icon is the photographs or paintings or sculpture used in the movie. Symbol is always conventional. Index expresses the relationship of signifier and signifier in the movie. The museum of the arts, paintings, sculpture means an elite collector or despot in capitalist society. Shawkat’s gorgeous jackets, hair styles are also index that means his status. But losing his father’s job and death, he is totally becomes unemployed and impoverished. Besides, Daniel Chandler points out three kinds of codes in the movie. They are social codes, interpretive codes and textual codes. These are also express film’s metaphorical meaning. For example; in social codes, there some divisions verbal codes, bodily codes, commodity codes and behavioral codes. In verbal codes, how Sultan, Marium and Shawkat talks to each other that would be understood. In bodily codes, bodily contact, proximity, gesture, posture etc of the characters would be understood. In commodity, what kinds of fashions or clothes they wear. Sultan is like elite person in the society. Marium is also like that. But Shawkat is selling his clothes in the shop for money to buy painting materials. In behavioral codes, we understood every character’s behavior. There are two kinds of behavior between the three characters. Romantic behavior contains between Marium and Shawkat. On the other hand, rude behavior stays between Sultan and Marium as well as Sultan and Shawkat. In textual codes we can understand romanticism, realism, music, sculpture, painting etc. we can understand human perception and ideology through interpretive codes. For example: the character’s perception and their own ideology. Metaphorically, this story depicts 1960s social political tension and exploitation to the Bangladeshis occurred by the Pakistanis. Here Sultan is the Pakistani despot and Marium represents her as exploited people. It depicts another meaning of the situation of the artists of then Pakistan. The artists were always with exploitation and socio-political tension. Bangladeshis did not get job in proportional rate. And the real situation, we can know when Shawkat moves from one office to another for a job but does not get. This scenery depicts the unemployment and impoverishment of the then Bangladeshi people ruled by the Pakistan.    Sanjiv Dutt in the film Kokhono Asheni (1961)     Power and exploitation:  In Marxist theory, there are for kinds of societies. They are Feudal society, tribal society, capitalist society and ancient society. But in this film, Zahir Raihan has depicted only capitalist society. According to Marxist theory, ‘the capitalist market transformed art into commodity which can be bought and sold.’    “I bought her only at 50tk in the very childhood. She is the cheapest collection in the museum.”________ Sultan   In the film art can be sold or bought but human? In the film human is also bought and sold by Sultan. According to Marxist theory, society is divided into two classes. One is ruling class. They always own the means of production and another is working class. They do not own the means of production. In the film Sultan owns the means of production. On the other hand Shawkat does not own the means of production. Sultan is an elite person or despot in the society. On the other hand Shawkat is only works for money and there is no relationship between him and his painting after sold. He is separated from the root and his productions. When exchange value is gone, he is nothing but an alienated person. He is alienated from his own products.            “You will come when intended but won’t touch.”____Sultan  That means the producer is alienated from his product. Sultan’s power is depicted in this dialogue.              “The petals go down when touched in the flower.”____ Sultan    Sultan always will keep the Marium as alive as he is worshiper of beauty. He always will stay aside her but will never touch her. He thinks beautiful things will always stay as static. He thinks Marium is like that flower or stone. But he never thinks that she has a heart. But she is exploited bit by bit in the museum by him. No one can free her from it.              “I have to die into the museum bit by bit. No one can free me from there.”____Marium    Sultan is the worshiper of beauty, art but never believe in human. He hates human. He thinks Marium as stone or as like painting or sculpture but never thinks her as human. As the museum is his all, his meditation, his ideology, his eternal pursuit. He has stolen many paintings and sculpture from others to decorate this museum. Ha has also murdered for this beauty or museum. Marium is breaking all the sculpture and paintings. She wants freedom from Sultan’s museum.  In this film his power and exploitation to Marium are depicted from this quotation.              “Break, break more, but you cannot break my mind”._____ Sultan    Sumita Devi in the film Kokhono Asheni (1961)     According to feminist theory:  It is the advocacy of women’s rights on the ground of the equality of the sexes. Feminists always argue that ‘society is patriarchal’. If we discuss about the equality of genders, this film is the perfect example of it. There is no right of women in the film only exploitation and oppression. Here Sultan is the oppressor and Marium is oppressed. And patriarchal society always wants to dominate women excessively. In feminist theory, difference between man and woman is gender which is a political construction not biological. But here in the film has shown it a biological construction. Actually how society treats women is the main factor in feminism. How women really are and what they really want are also under feminism. Here no one can think about equality in the film. But another noticeable matter is woman wants freedom. She is also a human. She is also involved in society. But patriarchal society does not allow her independency. Woman’s oppression is the result of the system of patriarchy. Another view of feminism is oppression is capitalism. Where there is woman oppression, there is capitalism. In the film, the capitalist society (Sultan) oppresses on Marium only for capital. And painting exhibition, sculpture exhibition are involved with capitalist attitude.    According to psychoanalytic film theory:            “Merry, I won’t live without you, Merry. Let’s run away anywhere tonight.”___ Shawkat    Three different psychoanalytic theories are got from Sigmund Freud, Jacques Lacan and Laura Mulvey’s psychoanalysis theory. These are interrelated with the psyche of the characters. Sigmund Freud depicts id, ego and super ego. These drivers are noticeable among the characters. Besides, Lacan’s ‘lack’ theory is also noticeable among them. Laura Mulvey’s ‘Gaze’ is observed in Marium, Shawkat and Sultan. “We are born with an id, while the ego develops through contact with culture which in turn produces the super ego.” [Sigmund Freud: 1984:362]. He argues that our nature is governed by culture and human nature is not something innate or unchangeable. We observe in the movie the character of Sultan; it is unchangeable and is governed by culture his own culture. Freud argues that id is governed by pleasure principle and ego is governed by the reality principle. Id driver is noticed in every character. But ego or super ego is observed only in Shawkat and Marium. Id works in unconscious but ego and super ego work unconscious. Sultan does not know what he says is right or wrong for the society. There is no judgment into it. But Marium and Shawkat are also involved in id but their ego and super ego are strong they observe their reality. They think everything consciously.    According to Jacques Lacan, ‘we are born into a condition of ‘lack’ and subsequently spend the rest of our lives trying to overcome this condition. ‘Lack’ is experienced in different things, but it is always a non representable expression of the fundamental condition of being human’. We notice this lack in every character’s mind. There is lack in Sultan’s mind. He desires worshiping of beauty. Marium desires independence of movement and Shawkat desires job and love of Marium. But without Sultan’s desire, Mariuma and Shawkat’s desire are hidden in mind. So, there creates a lack in their mind.    Read More About Kokhono Asheni (1961)  Laura Mulvey’s (1975) essay ‘Visual pleasure and narrative cinema’ she depicts her ‘gaze’. According to her, female character is used in cinema for fundamentally two reasons. (i) She is the object of male desire and (ii) she is the signifier of the threat of castration. But in this film, Kokhono Asheni (1961) two reasons are observed. Here Sultan worships her for her beauty. That means she is the desire of him though she is non touchable. On the other hand she is also a desire of Shawkat. That would be love or romance but it is also a kind of desire. Laura Mulvey argues that every gaze is sexual anyway it is schopophilia. On the other hand she is the signifier in the movie. She is woman that means not man or nothing. Feminism argues that in most patriarchal society woman is though as not man or nothing. But is political construction, not biological. Another view is she is weak in nature [Rashomon: 1950)]. So, she has no power like man.  ‘In a world structured by sexual imbalance the pleasure of the gaze has been separated into two different positions; men look and women exhibit (to-be-looked-at-ness).’ This view is also receivable in this analysis. As there is huge sexual imbalance, equality in the movie. Zahir Raihan has pointed out its root from this perspective.      Khan Ataur Rahman and Sumita Devi in Kokhono Asheni (1961) Movie    Realism and Romanticism:  Kokhono Asheni (1961) is a kind of realist and romantic film though romantic and realist scenes are little. Love relationship between Shawkat and Marium is the fundamental factor of romanticism here. For example: rainy scenes in the village and the romantic moment in the city roads and romantic moment in the house. But these are really little in the film for impoverishment and its results.    “Whom I will love, can dance, sing. My mind will fly in the far like goose with her melody.”_____ Shawkat    Marium does not get any scope to move away. She must stay alone in the museum. But when she is introduced with Shawkat, their relation is broadened in which time they don’t know. Mamun also loves Marium but he cannot express it to Marium. Shawkat has expressed love proposal to before Mamun.              “You are my friend. There is nothing to hide from you, we love each other.”____Shawkat    But their romantic moment is spoilt when he stands on strong reality. Even he cannot tolerate the reality of life. Here unemployment and impoverishment are the fundamental factors to interrupt their love relationship. He is consistent to run away with Marium in other area but in vain to critical reality of life.    “It is easy to tell but hard to run away, haven’t you seen my two sisters. How will we run away leaving them?”____ Shawkat    Shawkat is an artist. But his income is very little. Family depends on his father’s job salary. His lifestyle was like elite person before. His fashion, hairstyles were like elite person. But he is faced with serious impoverishment when his father loses job and his death. He has found job a lot but every company’s post is fulfilled. An unemployed person like him, at last sells his gorgeous jacket in the market for impoverishment. He has experienced the seriousness of life reality.              “How the life is thought precisely, actually it’s not like that, Merry…” ___ Shawkat     Before his father’s death, Shawkat and his friends always was on hanging at a café. But after understanding the reality of life with impoverishment, he cannot tolerate his former happy moments or dialogues. A customer in the café is discussing against artists in this country with his friends wearing a glass. But Shawkat takes down his glass and tells.              “Try to observe the world without glass, you will learn a lot.”____ Shawkat    Another thing we can understand in the film ‘freedom from captivity’. Marium is in chain for the whole life but when she comes in village and for the first time sees birds and unknowingly dismounts tea from its pot, as if her heart is flying in the sky. Freedom makes a person happy and unchained. The scene of the rain in the village covers a different music of happiness and seems she is free from any chain now. Freedom also helps to raise hope in mind. Romanticism between Marium and Shawkat is extremely noticeable here.      A painting in the film Kokhono Asheni (1961)    Unemployment and Impoverishment:  Impoverishment is started in Shawkat’s house mainly after his father’s losing job and death. The first half of the movie abounded with happiness when there was income source. But from the second half, their poverty is started. There are many signs in the house. For example: torn sari, shortage of rice.    “Sister, I am unable to sleep, extremely hungry.”____Shawkat’s younger sister    Shawkat eats the available food but his two sisters are extremely hungry that is unknown to him. On the other hand he discusses about the proposal of wedding of him and Marium. But he never thinks about his sister Rokeya’s wedding. In one side he tells he won’t live without Marium but in other side he has to think about his sisters. It is like that problems from every side have caught him strongly and he is unable to free from this two problems. If he runs away with Marium, what will happen for his sisters? He cannot bear the weight of this toleration.              “Oh, life has been intolerable, I cannot more, will live if you die.”___ Shawkat    This is the last word of Shawkat with his sisters. After that there were no scopes to talk with them before that they die taking poison. Shawkat also takes poison and faces with death. I think there is no a single cause of this suicide case study rather a bunch of causes are responsible for this. Police did not find its source. But I swear these are social policy or politics, oppression to the oppressed by the elites, unemployment, impoverishment, and captivity of Marium etc.  Narrator:  “This event was occurred before a long time, perhaps,                     many months or many years, police had tried many                     to find the causes of this mystery, hadn’t. The residents                     of this area discussed a lot to find the causes to this death,                    didn’t get causes. No one came to know why did they die?                    How did?”    Conclusion:  There is no a single cause of this suicide case study rather it has a lot of causes behind this suicide case. Police did not get any clue of this case that why they died or how? But it is matter of investigation to find the causes. This analysis argues that social policy, dependence, oppression to the oppressed by the elites, captivity, unemployment, impoverishment etc are the main causes of this suicide case study. But different theoretical approaches will find different nearest causes to support its own argument. Here Kokhono Asheni means ‘never came’. It is a ‘circle of life’ thought school. Reality of life, dependence and impoverishment but there is no sign of optimism.    References  Nabil Hossain (2018) Kokhono Asheni: A Case Study, Dhaka Tribune  Wahed Sujan (2013) Movie Review: Kokhono Asheni, Kokhono Ashe Nai: Iccha Shunya Manush  Zakir Hossain Raju. (2014) Bangladesh Cinema and National Identity: In Search of the Modern?  Baxandall and Morawski (1937), Marxist Theory  James Monaco (1977), How to read a film: The Language of Film: Signs and Syntax  Chandler, D. (2007), Semiotics: The Basics  Storey, J. (2009) Cultural Theory and Popular Culture: An Introduction (Fifth Ed.). Harlow: Pearson Longman.  Films Cited  Raihan, J. (Producer & Director). (1970). Jibon Theke Neya [Motion Picture]  Jingo, M. (Producer), & Kurosawa, A. (Director). (1950). Rashomon [Motion Picture]  Haque, A. & M. (Producer) & Raihan, Z. (Director). (1961). Kokhono Asheni [Motion Picture]
Sumita Devi in the film Kokhono Asheni (1961) 

According to feminist theory:
It is the advocacy of women’s rights on the ground of the equality of the sexes. Feminists always argue that ‘society is patriarchal’. If we discuss about the equality of genders, this film is the perfect example of it. There is no right of women in the film only exploitation and oppression. Here Sultan is the oppressor and Marium is oppressed. And patriarchal society always wants to dominate women excessively. In feminist theory, difference between man and woman is gender which is a political construction not biological. But here in the film has shown it a biological construction. Actually how society treats women is the main factor in feminism. How women really are and what they really want are also under feminism. Here no one can think about equality in the film. But another noticeable matter is woman wants freedom. She is also a human. She is also involved in society. But patriarchal society does not allow her independency. Woman’s oppression is the result of the system of patriarchy. Another view of feminism is oppression is capitalism. Where there is woman oppression, there is capitalism. In the film, the capitalist society (Sultan) oppresses on Marium only for capital. And painting exhibition, sculpture exhibition are involved with capitalist attitude.

According to psychoanalytic film theory:
          “Merry, I won’t live without you, Merry. Let’s run away anywhere tonight.”___ Shawkat

Three different psychoanalytic theories are got from Sigmund Freud, Jacques Lacan and Laura Mulvey’s psychoanalysis theory. These are interrelated with the psyche of the characters. Sigmund Freud depicts id, ego and super ego. These drivers are noticeable among the characters. Besides, Lacan’s ‘lack’ theory is also noticeable among them. Laura Mulvey’s ‘Gaze’ is observed in Marium, Shawkat and Sultan. “We are born with an id, while the ego develops through contact with culture which in turn produces the super ego.” [Sigmund Freud: 1984:362]. He argues that our nature is governed by culture and human nature is not something innate or unchangeable. We observe in the movie the character of Sultan; it is unchangeable and is governed by culture his own culture. Freud argues that id is governed by pleasure principle and ego is governed by the reality principle. Id driver is noticed in every character. But ego or super ego is observed only in Shawkat and Marium. Id works in unconscious but ego and super ego work unconscious. Sultan does not know what he says is right or wrong for the society. There is no judgment into it. But Marium and Shawkat are also involved in id but their ego and super ego are strong they observe their reality. They think everything consciously.

According to Jacques Lacan, ‘we are born into a condition of ‘lack’ and subsequently spend the rest of our lives trying to overcome this condition. ‘Lack’ is experienced in different things, but it is always a non representable expression of the fundamental condition of being human’. We notice this lack in every character’s mind. There is lack in Sultan’s mind. He desires worshiping of beauty. Marium desires independence of movement and Shawkat desires job and love of Marium. But without Sultan’s desire, Mariuma and Shawkat’s desire are hidden in mind. So, there creates a lack in their mind.

Read More About Kokhono Asheni (1961)

Laura Mulvey’s (1975) essay ‘Visual pleasure and narrative cinema’ she depicts her ‘gaze’. According to her, female character is used in cinema for fundamentally two reasons. (i) She is the object of male desire and (ii) she is the signifier of the threat of castration. But in this film, Kokhono Asheni (1961) two reasons are observed. Here Sultan worships her for her beauty. That means she is the desire of him though she is non touchable. On the other hand she is also a desire of Shawkat. That would be love or romance but it is also a kind of desire. Laura Mulvey argues that every gaze is sexual anyway it is schopophilia. On the other hand she is the signifier in the movie. She is woman that means not man or nothing. Feminism argues that in most patriarchal society woman is though as not man or nothing. But is political construction, not biological. Another view is she is weak in nature [Rashomon: 1950)]. So, she has no power like man.
‘In a world structured by sexual imbalance the pleasure of the gaze has been separated into two different positions; men look and women exhibit (to-be-looked-at-ness).’ This view is also receivable in this analysis. As there is huge sexual imbalance, equality in the movie. Zahir Raihan has pointed out its root from this perspective.
 
 Kokhono Asheni (1961) Bangladeshi Movie Poster      Md. Robiul Islam  Abstract: This is a critical review analysis of the cinema Kokhono Asheni (1961) directed by Zahir Raihan. This review is done to understand symbolism, power, romanticism, exploitation, unemployment and impoverishment in the film. This review argues that the occurrence of suicide is happened in Shawkat’s family for the upper psychic drivers. The review employs Marxist theory, Semiotics, Feminism and Psychoanalysis approaches to establish the argument.    Keywords: Symbolism, power, romanticism, exploitation, unemployment, impoverishment.  “You do creation. I reserve the creations….”                 ____Sultan  “I have no kindness to human, I hate human…”           ____Sultan  “How the life is thought precisely, actually it’s not like that…” ___ Shawkat  “I have to die bit by bit in this museum, no one can free me from here…” ___Marium  “We are all alone in this world, I am going on my own path, you choose your own” ___Shawkat    Impoverishment which leads them to commit suicide in the film but exploitation, unemployment and social tension have assisted a lot. Not only police but also no one found the source of suicide of them. A narrative quotation in the film is “on one found why and how they committed suicide, police has investigated the case but didn’t find any clue. But we shall try to find the source of the suicide occurrence through the upper characteristics attributed which will establish and symbolize the characterization of the characters.    From Previous Literature:  There is no important literature about this film and most of them are not arguable or there is not more valuable information in this article. There is huge lack of arguable information in these literatures. This article only describes two factors. One is the relationship of beauty with life and another is romanticism. Without these factors this article does not provide any arguable information. Sultan is the art collector. He is the worshiper of beauty of art. But he considers human [Marium] as the art. It has no life, it is like stone. It will always stay as stable. It is not dynamic. On the other hand romanticism is depicted in the rainy scene at village. Shawkat and Marium go to village for drawing painting with village scenery. But suddenly rain comes and their romantic scenery, dialogues are existed in the film. [Movie Review: Kokhono Asheni, Kokhono Ashe Nai by Wahed Sujan: 2013: Iccha Shunya Manush]  There are two main factors in the film used to understand its inner meanings. One is symbolism, here “Marium as the representative of the struggle of the Bangladeshis against the Pakistani oppressors” [Film Scholar Imran Firdaus], Sultan is the resemblance of Pakistani despot.    The Director, Zahir Raihan of Kokhono Asheni (1961) in the set    It describes the socio political tension existed in the 60s society between oppressors and oppressed. Marium is the ‘acquisition’ of Sultan that resembles dependent Bangladesh which is acquired by Pakistan in 1947 which never be freed from Pakistan. The first sequence and the last sequence of the film shows two sisters’ dead boy with their bother’s dead body. Actually it is considered the ‘circle of life’ which would never end. That means there is no means of freedom without oppression and social tension. But the means of independence is shown in Jibon Theke Neya (1970) another master piece directed by Zahir Raihan. Kokhono Asheni (1961) is directorial debut of Zahir Raihan. It did not do well in the box office but its substance, style, narrative elements are criticized positively by the critics. Actually this film shows the life of the average middle –class Bangladesh in Dhaka in 1960s. It is an experimental art film with social melodrama and it has a strong socio-political message for the society. [Kokhono Asheni: A Case Study by Nabil Hossain: 2018, Dhaka Tribune]  A research article about Kokhono Asheni (1961) is also available from Zakir Hossain Raju’s writing [‘Bangladesh Cinema and National Identity: In Search of the Modern? By Zakir Hossain Raju: 2014]    Theoretical Framework: This study employs Marxist theory, Semiotic cinema theory, Feminism and Psychoanalysis to understand life and view of the characters Sultan, Shawkat, Marium specially. This study also will find the symbolization the film through semiotic cinema theory.    Metaphorical Characterization  In semiotic cinema theory there are mainly two manners to understand any film’s meaning. One is denotative meaning and the other is connotative meaning. Denotative meaning is such a close approximation of reality. We do not have to strive to understand or know its meaning. Most of the signs of the cinema are denotative. But connotative meaning is metaphorical meaning. It gives us implicit meaning of a film or scene. According to Saussure, a sign consists of a signifier and a signified. Every character can be sign or costume, or any other object can be sign and signs are always identical. Here in the film Kokhono Asheni (1961) Sultan, Marium and Shawkat are different kinds of signs and they express different connotative meanings. For example: in metaphorical meaning, Sultan is the despot of Pakistan. Marium is the then exploited Bangladeshis who wants freedom but cannot but in other metaphorical meaning it seems dependent Bangladesh that is acquired by Pakistan in 1947 after state division. Shawkat and his sisters are also unemployed and impoverished people in then dependent Bangladesh. A film has three kinds of cinematic signs. For example; Icon, symbol and index. These are used to express a film’s total signs. Here icon is the photographs or paintings or sculpture used in the movie. Symbol is always conventional. Index expresses the relationship of signifier and signifier in the movie. The museum of the arts, paintings, sculpture means an elite collector or despot in capitalist society. Shawkat’s gorgeous jackets, hair styles are also index that means his status. But losing his father’s job and death, he is totally becomes unemployed and impoverished. Besides, Daniel Chandler points out three kinds of codes in the movie. They are social codes, interpretive codes and textual codes. These are also express film’s metaphorical meaning. For example; in social codes, there some divisions verbal codes, bodily codes, commodity codes and behavioral codes. In verbal codes, how Sultan, Marium and Shawkat talks to each other that would be understood. In bodily codes, bodily contact, proximity, gesture, posture etc of the characters would be understood. In commodity, what kinds of fashions or clothes they wear. Sultan is like elite person in the society. Marium is also like that. But Shawkat is selling his clothes in the shop for money to buy painting materials. In behavioral codes, we understood every character’s behavior. There are two kinds of behavior between the three characters. Romantic behavior contains between Marium and Shawkat. On the other hand, rude behavior stays between Sultan and Marium as well as Sultan and Shawkat. In textual codes we can understand romanticism, realism, music, sculpture, painting etc. we can understand human perception and ideology through interpretive codes. For example: the character’s perception and their own ideology. Metaphorically, this story depicts 1960s social political tension and exploitation to the Bangladeshis occurred by the Pakistanis. Here Sultan is the Pakistani despot and Marium represents her as exploited people. It depicts another meaning of the situation of the artists of then Pakistan. The artists were always with exploitation and socio-political tension. Bangladeshis did not get job in proportional rate. And the real situation, we can know when Shawkat moves from one office to another for a job but does not get. This scenery depicts the unemployment and impoverishment of the then Bangladeshi people ruled by the Pakistan.    Sanjiv Dutt in the film Kokhono Asheni (1961)     Power and exploitation:  In Marxist theory, there are for kinds of societies. They are Feudal society, tribal society, capitalist society and ancient society. But in this film, Zahir Raihan has depicted only capitalist society. According to Marxist theory, ‘the capitalist market transformed art into commodity which can be bought and sold.’    “I bought her only at 50tk in the very childhood. She is the cheapest collection in the museum.”________ Sultan   In the film art can be sold or bought but human? In the film human is also bought and sold by Sultan. According to Marxist theory, society is divided into two classes. One is ruling class. They always own the means of production and another is working class. They do not own the means of production. In the film Sultan owns the means of production. On the other hand Shawkat does not own the means of production. Sultan is an elite person or despot in the society. On the other hand Shawkat is only works for money and there is no relationship between him and his painting after sold. He is separated from the root and his productions. When exchange value is gone, he is nothing but an alienated person. He is alienated from his own products.            “You will come when intended but won’t touch.”____Sultan  That means the producer is alienated from his product. Sultan’s power is depicted in this dialogue.              “The petals go down when touched in the flower.”____ Sultan    Sultan always will keep the Marium as alive as he is worshiper of beauty. He always will stay aside her but will never touch her. He thinks beautiful things will always stay as static. He thinks Marium is like that flower or stone. But he never thinks that she has a heart. But she is exploited bit by bit in the museum by him. No one can free her from it.              “I have to die into the museum bit by bit. No one can free me from there.”____Marium    Sultan is the worshiper of beauty, art but never believe in human. He hates human. He thinks Marium as stone or as like painting or sculpture but never thinks her as human. As the museum is his all, his meditation, his ideology, his eternal pursuit. He has stolen many paintings and sculpture from others to decorate this museum. Ha has also murdered for this beauty or museum. Marium is breaking all the sculpture and paintings. She wants freedom from Sultan’s museum.  In this film his power and exploitation to Marium are depicted from this quotation.              “Break, break more, but you cannot break my mind”._____ Sultan    Sumita Devi in the film Kokhono Asheni (1961)     According to feminist theory:  It is the advocacy of women’s rights on the ground of the equality of the sexes. Feminists always argue that ‘society is patriarchal’. If we discuss about the equality of genders, this film is the perfect example of it. There is no right of women in the film only exploitation and oppression. Here Sultan is the oppressor and Marium is oppressed. And patriarchal society always wants to dominate women excessively. In feminist theory, difference between man and woman is gender which is a political construction not biological. But here in the film has shown it a biological construction. Actually how society treats women is the main factor in feminism. How women really are and what they really want are also under feminism. Here no one can think about equality in the film. But another noticeable matter is woman wants freedom. She is also a human. She is also involved in society. But patriarchal society does not allow her independency. Woman’s oppression is the result of the system of patriarchy. Another view of feminism is oppression is capitalism. Where there is woman oppression, there is capitalism. In the film, the capitalist society (Sultan) oppresses on Marium only for capital. And painting exhibition, sculpture exhibition are involved with capitalist attitude.    According to psychoanalytic film theory:            “Merry, I won’t live without you, Merry. Let’s run away anywhere tonight.”___ Shawkat    Three different psychoanalytic theories are got from Sigmund Freud, Jacques Lacan and Laura Mulvey’s psychoanalysis theory. These are interrelated with the psyche of the characters. Sigmund Freud depicts id, ego and super ego. These drivers are noticeable among the characters. Besides, Lacan’s ‘lack’ theory is also noticeable among them. Laura Mulvey’s ‘Gaze’ is observed in Marium, Shawkat and Sultan. “We are born with an id, while the ego develops through contact with culture which in turn produces the super ego.” [Sigmund Freud: 1984:362]. He argues that our nature is governed by culture and human nature is not something innate or unchangeable. We observe in the movie the character of Sultan; it is unchangeable and is governed by culture his own culture. Freud argues that id is governed by pleasure principle and ego is governed by the reality principle. Id driver is noticed in every character. But ego or super ego is observed only in Shawkat and Marium. Id works in unconscious but ego and super ego work unconscious. Sultan does not know what he says is right or wrong for the society. There is no judgment into it. But Marium and Shawkat are also involved in id but their ego and super ego are strong they observe their reality. They think everything consciously.    According to Jacques Lacan, ‘we are born into a condition of ‘lack’ and subsequently spend the rest of our lives trying to overcome this condition. ‘Lack’ is experienced in different things, but it is always a non representable expression of the fundamental condition of being human’. We notice this lack in every character’s mind. There is lack in Sultan’s mind. He desires worshiping of beauty. Marium desires independence of movement and Shawkat desires job and love of Marium. But without Sultan’s desire, Mariuma and Shawkat’s desire are hidden in mind. So, there creates a lack in their mind.    Read More About Kokhono Asheni (1961)  Laura Mulvey’s (1975) essay ‘Visual pleasure and narrative cinema’ she depicts her ‘gaze’. According to her, female character is used in cinema for fundamentally two reasons. (i) She is the object of male desire and (ii) she is the signifier of the threat of castration. But in this film, Kokhono Asheni (1961) two reasons are observed. Here Sultan worships her for her beauty. That means she is the desire of him though she is non touchable. On the other hand she is also a desire of Shawkat. That would be love or romance but it is also a kind of desire. Laura Mulvey argues that every gaze is sexual anyway it is schopophilia. On the other hand she is the signifier in the movie. She is woman that means not man or nothing. Feminism argues that in most patriarchal society woman is though as not man or nothing. But is political construction, not biological. Another view is she is weak in nature [Rashomon: 1950)]. So, she has no power like man.  ‘In a world structured by sexual imbalance the pleasure of the gaze has been separated into two different positions; men look and women exhibit (to-be-looked-at-ness).’ This view is also receivable in this analysis. As there is huge sexual imbalance, equality in the movie. Zahir Raihan has pointed out its root from this perspective.      Khan Ataur Rahman and Sumita Devi in Kokhono Asheni (1961) Movie    Realism and Romanticism:  Kokhono Asheni (1961) is a kind of realist and romantic film though romantic and realist scenes are little. Love relationship between Shawkat and Marium is the fundamental factor of romanticism here. For example: rainy scenes in the village and the romantic moment in the city roads and romantic moment in the house. But these are really little in the film for impoverishment and its results.    “Whom I will love, can dance, sing. My mind will fly in the far like goose with her melody.”_____ Shawkat    Marium does not get any scope to move away. She must stay alone in the museum. But when she is introduced with Shawkat, their relation is broadened in which time they don’t know. Mamun also loves Marium but he cannot express it to Marium. Shawkat has expressed love proposal to before Mamun.              “You are my friend. There is nothing to hide from you, we love each other.”____Shawkat    But their romantic moment is spoilt when he stands on strong reality. Even he cannot tolerate the reality of life. Here unemployment and impoverishment are the fundamental factors to interrupt their love relationship. He is consistent to run away with Marium in other area but in vain to critical reality of life.    “It is easy to tell but hard to run away, haven’t you seen my two sisters. How will we run away leaving them?”____ Shawkat    Shawkat is an artist. But his income is very little. Family depends on his father’s job salary. His lifestyle was like elite person before. His fashion, hairstyles were like elite person. But he is faced with serious impoverishment when his father loses job and his death. He has found job a lot but every company’s post is fulfilled. An unemployed person like him, at last sells his gorgeous jacket in the market for impoverishment. He has experienced the seriousness of life reality.              “How the life is thought precisely, actually it’s not like that, Merry…” ___ Shawkat     Before his father’s death, Shawkat and his friends always was on hanging at a café. But after understanding the reality of life with impoverishment, he cannot tolerate his former happy moments or dialogues. A customer in the café is discussing against artists in this country with his friends wearing a glass. But Shawkat takes down his glass and tells.              “Try to observe the world without glass, you will learn a lot.”____ Shawkat    Another thing we can understand in the film ‘freedom from captivity’. Marium is in chain for the whole life but when she comes in village and for the first time sees birds and unknowingly dismounts tea from its pot, as if her heart is flying in the sky. Freedom makes a person happy and unchained. The scene of the rain in the village covers a different music of happiness and seems she is free from any chain now. Freedom also helps to raise hope in mind. Romanticism between Marium and Shawkat is extremely noticeable here.      A painting in the film Kokhono Asheni (1961)    Unemployment and Impoverishment:  Impoverishment is started in Shawkat’s house mainly after his father’s losing job and death. The first half of the movie abounded with happiness when there was income source. But from the second half, their poverty is started. There are many signs in the house. For example: torn sari, shortage of rice.    “Sister, I am unable to sleep, extremely hungry.”____Shawkat’s younger sister    Shawkat eats the available food but his two sisters are extremely hungry that is unknown to him. On the other hand he discusses about the proposal of wedding of him and Marium. But he never thinks about his sister Rokeya’s wedding. In one side he tells he won’t live without Marium but in other side he has to think about his sisters. It is like that problems from every side have caught him strongly and he is unable to free from this two problems. If he runs away with Marium, what will happen for his sisters? He cannot bear the weight of this toleration.              “Oh, life has been intolerable, I cannot more, will live if you die.”___ Shawkat    This is the last word of Shawkat with his sisters. After that there were no scopes to talk with them before that they die taking poison. Shawkat also takes poison and faces with death. I think there is no a single cause of this suicide case study rather a bunch of causes are responsible for this. Police did not find its source. But I swear these are social policy or politics, oppression to the oppressed by the elites, unemployment, impoverishment, and captivity of Marium etc.  Narrator:  “This event was occurred before a long time, perhaps,                     many months or many years, police had tried many                     to find the causes of this mystery, hadn’t. The residents                     of this area discussed a lot to find the causes to this death,                    didn’t get causes. No one came to know why did they die?                    How did?”    Conclusion:  There is no a single cause of this suicide case study rather it has a lot of causes behind this suicide case. Police did not get any clue of this case that why they died or how? But it is matter of investigation to find the causes. This analysis argues that social policy, dependence, oppression to the oppressed by the elites, captivity, unemployment, impoverishment etc are the main causes of this suicide case study. But different theoretical approaches will find different nearest causes to support its own argument. Here Kokhono Asheni means ‘never came’. It is a ‘circle of life’ thought school. Reality of life, dependence and impoverishment but there is no sign of optimism.    References  Nabil Hossain (2018) Kokhono Asheni: A Case Study, Dhaka Tribune  Wahed Sujan (2013) Movie Review: Kokhono Asheni, Kokhono Ashe Nai: Iccha Shunya Manush  Zakir Hossain Raju. (2014) Bangladesh Cinema and National Identity: In Search of the Modern?  Baxandall and Morawski (1937), Marxist Theory  James Monaco (1977), How to read a film: The Language of Film: Signs and Syntax  Chandler, D. (2007), Semiotics: The Basics  Storey, J. (2009) Cultural Theory and Popular Culture: An Introduction (Fifth Ed.). Harlow: Pearson Longman.  Films Cited  Raihan, J. (Producer & Director). (1970). Jibon Theke Neya [Motion Picture]  Jingo, M. (Producer), & Kurosawa, A. (Director). (1950). Rashomon [Motion Picture]  Haque, A. & M. (Producer) & Raihan, Z. (Director). (1961). Kokhono Asheni [Motion Picture]
Khan Ataur Rahman and Sumita Devi in Kokhono Asheni (1961) Movie 
Realism and Romanticism:
Kokhono Asheni (1961) is a kind of realist and romantic film though romantic and realist scenes are little. Love relationship between Shawkat and Marium is the fundamental factor of romanticism here. For example: rainy scenes in the village and the romantic moment in the city roads and romantic moment in the house. But these are really little in the film for impoverishment and its results.

“Whom I will love, can dance, sing. My mind will fly in the far like goose with her melody.”_____ Shawkat

Marium does not get any scope to move away. She must stay alone in the museum. But when she is introduced with Shawkat, their relation is broadened in which time they don’t know. Mamun also loves Marium but he cannot express it to Marium. Shawkat has expressed love proposal to before Mamun.

          “You are my friend. There is nothing to hide from you, we love each other.”____Shawkat

But their romantic moment is spoilt when he stands on strong reality. Even he cannot tolerate the reality of life. Here unemployment and impoverishment are the fundamental factors to interrupt their love relationship. He is consistent to run away with Marium in other area but in vain to critical reality of life.

“It is easy to tell but hard to run away, haven’t you seen my two sisters. How will we run away leaving them?”____ Shawkat

Shawkat is an artist. But his income is very little. Family depends on his father’s job salary. His lifestyle was like elite person before. His fashion, hairstyles were like elite person. But he is faced with serious impoverishment when his father loses job and his death. He has found job a lot but every company’s post is fulfilled. An unemployed person like him, at last sells his gorgeous jacket in the market for impoverishment. He has experienced the seriousness of life reality.

          “How the life is thought precisely, actually it’s not like that, Merry…” ___ Shawkat 

Before his father’s death, Shawkat and his friends always was on hanging at a café. But after understanding the reality of life with impoverishment, he cannot tolerate his former happy moments or dialogues. A customer in the café is discussing against artists in this country with his friends wearing a glass. But Shawkat takes down his glass and tells.

          “Try to observe the world without glass, you will learn a lot.”____ Shawkat

Another thing we can understand in the film ‘freedom from captivity’. Marium is in chain for the whole life but when she comes in village and for the first time sees birds and unknowingly dismounts tea from its pot, as if her heart is flying in the sky. Freedom makes a person happy and unchained. The scene of the rain in the village covers a different music of happiness and seems she is free from any chain now. Freedom also helps to raise hope in mind. Romanticism between Marium and Shawkat is extremely noticeable here.
 
 Kokhono Asheni (1961) Bangladeshi Movie Poster      Md. Robiul Islam  Abstract: This is a critical review analysis of the cinema Kokhono Asheni (1961) directed by Zahir Raihan. This review is done to understand symbolism, power, romanticism, exploitation, unemployment and impoverishment in the film. This review argues that the occurrence of suicide is happened in Shawkat’s family for the upper psychic drivers. The review employs Marxist theory, Semiotics, Feminism and Psychoanalysis approaches to establish the argument.    Keywords: Symbolism, power, romanticism, exploitation, unemployment, impoverishment.  “You do creation. I reserve the creations….”                 ____Sultan  “I have no kindness to human, I hate human…”           ____Sultan  “How the life is thought precisely, actually it’s not like that…” ___ Shawkat  “I have to die bit by bit in this museum, no one can free me from here…” ___Marium  “We are all alone in this world, I am going on my own path, you choose your own” ___Shawkat    Impoverishment which leads them to commit suicide in the film but exploitation, unemployment and social tension have assisted a lot. Not only police but also no one found the source of suicide of them. A narrative quotation in the film is “on one found why and how they committed suicide, police has investigated the case but didn’t find any clue. But we shall try to find the source of the suicide occurrence through the upper characteristics attributed which will establish and symbolize the characterization of the characters.    From Previous Literature:  There is no important literature about this film and most of them are not arguable or there is not more valuable information in this article. There is huge lack of arguable information in these literatures. This article only describes two factors. One is the relationship of beauty with life and another is romanticism. Without these factors this article does not provide any arguable information. Sultan is the art collector. He is the worshiper of beauty of art. But he considers human [Marium] as the art. It has no life, it is like stone. It will always stay as stable. It is not dynamic. On the other hand romanticism is depicted in the rainy scene at village. Shawkat and Marium go to village for drawing painting with village scenery. But suddenly rain comes and their romantic scenery, dialogues are existed in the film. [Movie Review: Kokhono Asheni, Kokhono Ashe Nai by Wahed Sujan: 2013: Iccha Shunya Manush]  There are two main factors in the film used to understand its inner meanings. One is symbolism, here “Marium as the representative of the struggle of the Bangladeshis against the Pakistani oppressors” [Film Scholar Imran Firdaus], Sultan is the resemblance of Pakistani despot.    The Director, Zahir Raihan of Kokhono Asheni (1961) in the set    It describes the socio political tension existed in the 60s society between oppressors and oppressed. Marium is the ‘acquisition’ of Sultan that resembles dependent Bangladesh which is acquired by Pakistan in 1947 which never be freed from Pakistan. The first sequence and the last sequence of the film shows two sisters’ dead boy with their bother’s dead body. Actually it is considered the ‘circle of life’ which would never end. That means there is no means of freedom without oppression and social tension. But the means of independence is shown in Jibon Theke Neya (1970) another master piece directed by Zahir Raihan. Kokhono Asheni (1961) is directorial debut of Zahir Raihan. It did not do well in the box office but its substance, style, narrative elements are criticized positively by the critics. Actually this film shows the life of the average middle –class Bangladesh in Dhaka in 1960s. It is an experimental art film with social melodrama and it has a strong socio-political message for the society. [Kokhono Asheni: A Case Study by Nabil Hossain: 2018, Dhaka Tribune]  A research article about Kokhono Asheni (1961) is also available from Zakir Hossain Raju’s writing [‘Bangladesh Cinema and National Identity: In Search of the Modern? By Zakir Hossain Raju: 2014]    Theoretical Framework: This study employs Marxist theory, Semiotic cinema theory, Feminism and Psychoanalysis to understand life and view of the characters Sultan, Shawkat, Marium specially. This study also will find the symbolization the film through semiotic cinema theory.    Metaphorical Characterization  In semiotic cinema theory there are mainly two manners to understand any film’s meaning. One is denotative meaning and the other is connotative meaning. Denotative meaning is such a close approximation of reality. We do not have to strive to understand or know its meaning. Most of the signs of the cinema are denotative. But connotative meaning is metaphorical meaning. It gives us implicit meaning of a film or scene. According to Saussure, a sign consists of a signifier and a signified. Every character can be sign or costume, or any other object can be sign and signs are always identical. Here in the film Kokhono Asheni (1961) Sultan, Marium and Shawkat are different kinds of signs and they express different connotative meanings. For example: in metaphorical meaning, Sultan is the despot of Pakistan. Marium is the then exploited Bangladeshis who wants freedom but cannot but in other metaphorical meaning it seems dependent Bangladesh that is acquired by Pakistan in 1947 after state division. Shawkat and his sisters are also unemployed and impoverished people in then dependent Bangladesh. A film has three kinds of cinematic signs. For example; Icon, symbol and index. These are used to express a film’s total signs. Here icon is the photographs or paintings or sculpture used in the movie. Symbol is always conventional. Index expresses the relationship of signifier and signifier in the movie. The museum of the arts, paintings, sculpture means an elite collector or despot in capitalist society. Shawkat’s gorgeous jackets, hair styles are also index that means his status. But losing his father’s job and death, he is totally becomes unemployed and impoverished. Besides, Daniel Chandler points out three kinds of codes in the movie. They are social codes, interpretive codes and textual codes. These are also express film’s metaphorical meaning. For example; in social codes, there some divisions verbal codes, bodily codes, commodity codes and behavioral codes. In verbal codes, how Sultan, Marium and Shawkat talks to each other that would be understood. In bodily codes, bodily contact, proximity, gesture, posture etc of the characters would be understood. In commodity, what kinds of fashions or clothes they wear. Sultan is like elite person in the society. Marium is also like that. But Shawkat is selling his clothes in the shop for money to buy painting materials. In behavioral codes, we understood every character’s behavior. There are two kinds of behavior between the three characters. Romantic behavior contains between Marium and Shawkat. On the other hand, rude behavior stays between Sultan and Marium as well as Sultan and Shawkat. In textual codes we can understand romanticism, realism, music, sculpture, painting etc. we can understand human perception and ideology through interpretive codes. For example: the character’s perception and their own ideology. Metaphorically, this story depicts 1960s social political tension and exploitation to the Bangladeshis occurred by the Pakistanis. Here Sultan is the Pakistani despot and Marium represents her as exploited people. It depicts another meaning of the situation of the artists of then Pakistan. The artists were always with exploitation and socio-political tension. Bangladeshis did not get job in proportional rate. And the real situation, we can know when Shawkat moves from one office to another for a job but does not get. This scenery depicts the unemployment and impoverishment of the then Bangladeshi people ruled by the Pakistan.    Sanjiv Dutt in the film Kokhono Asheni (1961)     Power and exploitation:  In Marxist theory, there are for kinds of societies. They are Feudal society, tribal society, capitalist society and ancient society. But in this film, Zahir Raihan has depicted only capitalist society. According to Marxist theory, ‘the capitalist market transformed art into commodity which can be bought and sold.’    “I bought her only at 50tk in the very childhood. She is the cheapest collection in the museum.”________ Sultan   In the film art can be sold or bought but human? In the film human is also bought and sold by Sultan. According to Marxist theory, society is divided into two classes. One is ruling class. They always own the means of production and another is working class. They do not own the means of production. In the film Sultan owns the means of production. On the other hand Shawkat does not own the means of production. Sultan is an elite person or despot in the society. On the other hand Shawkat is only works for money and there is no relationship between him and his painting after sold. He is separated from the root and his productions. When exchange value is gone, he is nothing but an alienated person. He is alienated from his own products.            “You will come when intended but won’t touch.”____Sultan  That means the producer is alienated from his product. Sultan’s power is depicted in this dialogue.              “The petals go down when touched in the flower.”____ Sultan    Sultan always will keep the Marium as alive as he is worshiper of beauty. He always will stay aside her but will never touch her. He thinks beautiful things will always stay as static. He thinks Marium is like that flower or stone. But he never thinks that she has a heart. But she is exploited bit by bit in the museum by him. No one can free her from it.              “I have to die into the museum bit by bit. No one can free me from there.”____Marium    Sultan is the worshiper of beauty, art but never believe in human. He hates human. He thinks Marium as stone or as like painting or sculpture but never thinks her as human. As the museum is his all, his meditation, his ideology, his eternal pursuit. He has stolen many paintings and sculpture from others to decorate this museum. Ha has also murdered for this beauty or museum. Marium is breaking all the sculpture and paintings. She wants freedom from Sultan’s museum.  In this film his power and exploitation to Marium are depicted from this quotation.              “Break, break more, but you cannot break my mind”._____ Sultan    Sumita Devi in the film Kokhono Asheni (1961)     According to feminist theory:  It is the advocacy of women’s rights on the ground of the equality of the sexes. Feminists always argue that ‘society is patriarchal’. If we discuss about the equality of genders, this film is the perfect example of it. There is no right of women in the film only exploitation and oppression. Here Sultan is the oppressor and Marium is oppressed. And patriarchal society always wants to dominate women excessively. In feminist theory, difference between man and woman is gender which is a political construction not biological. But here in the film has shown it a biological construction. Actually how society treats women is the main factor in feminism. How women really are and what they really want are also under feminism. Here no one can think about equality in the film. But another noticeable matter is woman wants freedom. She is also a human. She is also involved in society. But patriarchal society does not allow her independency. Woman’s oppression is the result of the system of patriarchy. Another view of feminism is oppression is capitalism. Where there is woman oppression, there is capitalism. In the film, the capitalist society (Sultan) oppresses on Marium only for capital. And painting exhibition, sculpture exhibition are involved with capitalist attitude.    According to psychoanalytic film theory:            “Merry, I won’t live without you, Merry. Let’s run away anywhere tonight.”___ Shawkat    Three different psychoanalytic theories are got from Sigmund Freud, Jacques Lacan and Laura Mulvey’s psychoanalysis theory. These are interrelated with the psyche of the characters. Sigmund Freud depicts id, ego and super ego. These drivers are noticeable among the characters. Besides, Lacan’s ‘lack’ theory is also noticeable among them. Laura Mulvey’s ‘Gaze’ is observed in Marium, Shawkat and Sultan. “We are born with an id, while the ego develops through contact with culture which in turn produces the super ego.” [Sigmund Freud: 1984:362]. He argues that our nature is governed by culture and human nature is not something innate or unchangeable. We observe in the movie the character of Sultan; it is unchangeable and is governed by culture his own culture. Freud argues that id is governed by pleasure principle and ego is governed by the reality principle. Id driver is noticed in every character. But ego or super ego is observed only in Shawkat and Marium. Id works in unconscious but ego and super ego work unconscious. Sultan does not know what he says is right or wrong for the society. There is no judgment into it. But Marium and Shawkat are also involved in id but their ego and super ego are strong they observe their reality. They think everything consciously.    According to Jacques Lacan, ‘we are born into a condition of ‘lack’ and subsequently spend the rest of our lives trying to overcome this condition. ‘Lack’ is experienced in different things, but it is always a non representable expression of the fundamental condition of being human’. We notice this lack in every character’s mind. There is lack in Sultan’s mind. He desires worshiping of beauty. Marium desires independence of movement and Shawkat desires job and love of Marium. But without Sultan’s desire, Mariuma and Shawkat’s desire are hidden in mind. So, there creates a lack in their mind.    Read More About Kokhono Asheni (1961)  Laura Mulvey’s (1975) essay ‘Visual pleasure and narrative cinema’ she depicts her ‘gaze’. According to her, female character is used in cinema for fundamentally two reasons. (i) She is the object of male desire and (ii) she is the signifier of the threat of castration. But in this film, Kokhono Asheni (1961) two reasons are observed. Here Sultan worships her for her beauty. That means she is the desire of him though she is non touchable. On the other hand she is also a desire of Shawkat. That would be love or romance but it is also a kind of desire. Laura Mulvey argues that every gaze is sexual anyway it is schopophilia. On the other hand she is the signifier in the movie. She is woman that means not man or nothing. Feminism argues that in most patriarchal society woman is though as not man or nothing. But is political construction, not biological. Another view is she is weak in nature [Rashomon: 1950)]. So, she has no power like man.  ‘In a world structured by sexual imbalance the pleasure of the gaze has been separated into two different positions; men look and women exhibit (to-be-looked-at-ness).’ This view is also receivable in this analysis. As there is huge sexual imbalance, equality in the movie. Zahir Raihan has pointed out its root from this perspective.      Khan Ataur Rahman and Sumita Devi in Kokhono Asheni (1961) Movie    Realism and Romanticism:  Kokhono Asheni (1961) is a kind of realist and romantic film though romantic and realist scenes are little. Love relationship between Shawkat and Marium is the fundamental factor of romanticism here. For example: rainy scenes in the village and the romantic moment in the city roads and romantic moment in the house. But these are really little in the film for impoverishment and its results.    “Whom I will love, can dance, sing. My mind will fly in the far like goose with her melody.”_____ Shawkat    Marium does not get any scope to move away. She must stay alone in the museum. But when she is introduced with Shawkat, their relation is broadened in which time they don’t know. Mamun also loves Marium but he cannot express it to Marium. Shawkat has expressed love proposal to before Mamun.              “You are my friend. There is nothing to hide from you, we love each other.”____Shawkat    But their romantic moment is spoilt when he stands on strong reality. Even he cannot tolerate the reality of life. Here unemployment and impoverishment are the fundamental factors to interrupt their love relationship. He is consistent to run away with Marium in other area but in vain to critical reality of life.    “It is easy to tell but hard to run away, haven’t you seen my two sisters. How will we run away leaving them?”____ Shawkat    Shawkat is an artist. But his income is very little. Family depends on his father’s job salary. His lifestyle was like elite person before. His fashion, hairstyles were like elite person. But he is faced with serious impoverishment when his father loses job and his death. He has found job a lot but every company’s post is fulfilled. An unemployed person like him, at last sells his gorgeous jacket in the market for impoverishment. He has experienced the seriousness of life reality.              “How the life is thought precisely, actually it’s not like that, Merry…” ___ Shawkat     Before his father’s death, Shawkat and his friends always was on hanging at a café. But after understanding the reality of life with impoverishment, he cannot tolerate his former happy moments or dialogues. A customer in the café is discussing against artists in this country with his friends wearing a glass. But Shawkat takes down his glass and tells.              “Try to observe the world without glass, you will learn a lot.”____ Shawkat    Another thing we can understand in the film ‘freedom from captivity’. Marium is in chain for the whole life but when she comes in village and for the first time sees birds and unknowingly dismounts tea from its pot, as if her heart is flying in the sky. Freedom makes a person happy and unchained. The scene of the rain in the village covers a different music of happiness and seems she is free from any chain now. Freedom also helps to raise hope in mind. Romanticism between Marium and Shawkat is extremely noticeable here.      A painting in the film Kokhono Asheni (1961)    Unemployment and Impoverishment:  Impoverishment is started in Shawkat’s house mainly after his father’s losing job and death. The first half of the movie abounded with happiness when there was income source. But from the second half, their poverty is started. There are many signs in the house. For example: torn sari, shortage of rice.    “Sister, I am unable to sleep, extremely hungry.”____Shawkat’s younger sister    Shawkat eats the available food but his two sisters are extremely hungry that is unknown to him. On the other hand he discusses about the proposal of wedding of him and Marium. But he never thinks about his sister Rokeya’s wedding. In one side he tells he won’t live without Marium but in other side he has to think about his sisters. It is like that problems from every side have caught him strongly and he is unable to free from this two problems. If he runs away with Marium, what will happen for his sisters? He cannot bear the weight of this toleration.              “Oh, life has been intolerable, I cannot more, will live if you die.”___ Shawkat    This is the last word of Shawkat with his sisters. After that there were no scopes to talk with them before that they die taking poison. Shawkat also takes poison and faces with death. I think there is no a single cause of this suicide case study rather a bunch of causes are responsible for this. Police did not find its source. But I swear these are social policy or politics, oppression to the oppressed by the elites, unemployment, impoverishment, and captivity of Marium etc.  Narrator:  “This event was occurred before a long time, perhaps,                     many months or many years, police had tried many                     to find the causes of this mystery, hadn’t. The residents                     of this area discussed a lot to find the causes to this death,                    didn’t get causes. No one came to know why did they die?                    How did?”    Conclusion:  There is no a single cause of this suicide case study rather it has a lot of causes behind this suicide case. Police did not get any clue of this case that why they died or how? But it is matter of investigation to find the causes. This analysis argues that social policy, dependence, oppression to the oppressed by the elites, captivity, unemployment, impoverishment etc are the main causes of this suicide case study. But different theoretical approaches will find different nearest causes to support its own argument. Here Kokhono Asheni means ‘never came’. It is a ‘circle of life’ thought school. Reality of life, dependence and impoverishment but there is no sign of optimism.    References  Nabil Hossain (2018) Kokhono Asheni: A Case Study, Dhaka Tribune  Wahed Sujan (2013) Movie Review: Kokhono Asheni, Kokhono Ashe Nai: Iccha Shunya Manush  Zakir Hossain Raju. (2014) Bangladesh Cinema and National Identity: In Search of the Modern?  Baxandall and Morawski (1937), Marxist Theory  James Monaco (1977), How to read a film: The Language of Film: Signs and Syntax  Chandler, D. (2007), Semiotics: The Basics  Storey, J. (2009) Cultural Theory and Popular Culture: An Introduction (Fifth Ed.). Harlow: Pearson Longman.  Films Cited  Raihan, J. (Producer & Director). (1970). Jibon Theke Neya [Motion Picture]  Jingo, M. (Producer), & Kurosawa, A. (Director). (1950). Rashomon [Motion Picture]  Haque, A. & M. (Producer) & Raihan, Z. (Director). (1961). Kokhono Asheni [Motion Picture]
A painting in the film Kokhono Asheni (1961) 
Unemployment and Impoverishment:
Impoverishment is started in Shawkat’s house mainly after his father’s losing job and death. The first half of the movie abounded with happiness when there was income source. But from the second half, their poverty is started. There are many signs in the house. For example: torn sari, shortage of rice.

“Sister, I am unable to sleep, extremely hungry.”____Shawkat’s younger sister

Shawkat eats the available food but his two sisters are extremely hungry that is unknown to him. On the other hand he discusses about the proposal of wedding of him and Marium. But he never thinks about his sister Rokeya’s wedding. In one side he tells he won’t live without Marium but in other side he has to think about his sisters. It is like that problems from every side have caught him strongly and he is unable to free from this two problems. If he runs away with Marium, what will happen for his sisters? He cannot bear the weight of this toleration.

          “Oh, life has been intolerable, I cannot more, will live if you die.”___ Shawkat

This is the last word of Shawkat with his sisters. After that there were no scopes to talk with them before that they die taking poison. Shawkat also takes poison and faces with death. I think there is no a single cause of this suicide case study rather a bunch of causes are responsible for this. Police did not find its source. But I swear these are social policy or politics, oppression to the oppressed by the elites, unemployment, impoverishment, and captivity of Marium etc.
Narrator:  “This event was occurred before a long time, perhaps,
                   many months or many years, police had tried many
                   to find the causes of this mystery, hadn’t. The residents
                   of this area discussed a lot to find the causes to this death,
                  didn’t get causes. No one came to know why did they die?
                  How did?”

Conclusion:
There is no a single cause of this suicide case study rather it has a lot of causes behind this suicide case. Police did not get any clue of this case that why they died or how? But it is matter of investigation to find the causes. This analysis argues that social policy, dependence, oppression to the oppressed by the elites, captivity, unemployment, impoverishment etc are the main causes of this suicide case study. But different theoretical approaches will find different nearest causes to support its own argument. Here Kokhono Asheni means ‘never came’. It is a ‘circle of life’ thought school. Reality of life, dependence and impoverishment but there is no sign of optimism.

References
Nabil Hossain (2018) Kokhono Asheni: A Case Study, Dhaka Tribune
Wahed Sujan (2013) Movie Review: Kokhono Asheni, Kokhono Ashe Nai: Iccha Shunya Manush
Zakir Hossain Raju. (2014) Bangladesh Cinema and National Identity: In Search of the Modern?
Baxandall and Morawski (1937), Marxist Theory
James Monaco (1977), How to read a film: The Language of Film: Signs and Syntax
Chandler, D. (2007), Semiotics: The Basics
Storey, J. (2009) Cultural Theory and Popular Culture: An Introduction (Fifth Ed.). Harlow: Pearson Longman.
Films Cited
Raihan, J. (Producer & Director). (1970). Jibon Theke Neya [Motion Picture]
Jingo, M. (Producer), & Kurosawa, A. (Director). (1950). Rashomon [Motion Picture]
Haque, A. & M. (Producer) & Raihan, Z. (Director). (1961). Kokhono Asheni [Motion Picture]


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