Thursday, August 29, 2019

An in-depth look into the film “Kokhono Asheni”

 Khan Ataur Rahman and Sumita Devi in Kokhono Asheni (1961) Movie       Md. Tanjir Alam   ‘Kokhono Asheni’(1961), is the first movie of Zahir Raihan as a director. The title of the film alludes to something which is normal however not found ever. ‘Kokhono Asheni’ the directorial debut of Zahir Raihan, is a landmark film in the history of Bangladeshi filmmaking. Although Raihan had previously worked as an assistant director to A J Karder in the film Jago Huya Savera, it is with Kokhono Asheni that he truly announced his arrival on the filmmaking stage. The film, however, was well received by critics as ground-breaking in its substance, style and narrative elements. It can be broadly categorized under the ‘experimental art film’ category, albeit feeling like a social melodrama.    ‘Kokhono Asheni’ is set against the backdrop of 1960s Dhaka in the then East Pakistan. As such, it provides us with a rare opportunity to see life of the average middle-class Bangladeshi in Dhaka. The film essentially speaks to the account of a lower-class family, their life battle, a lady and her story and the musings of the general public of the 1960s in a very efficient account style. A rich individual named Sultan regards a lady as a model, as a piece of his own gallery whom he purchased with just 50 taka when she was a kid. However, the lady is youthful at this point. She needs to escape this historical center and needs to be dealt with like a human. She experiences passionate feelings for Shawkat, a youthful painter lives in alongside her structure.    Khan Ataur Rahman and Sumita Devi in Kokhono Asheni (1961) Movie     Shawkat’s life as a bohemian artist perfectly illustrates the life of an artist in Dhaka during the 60s. Shawkat’s choice of attire is something that is particularly striking when we talk about middle class sensibilities portrayed within the film. We also see Shawkat and his friends regularly hanging out at cafes partaking in the favourite Bengali pastime of ‘Addabaji’. He holds art exhibitions of his work and critics and collectors seem to deem his work praiseworthy. Shawkat portrays the perfect embodiment of a chic young artist. She needs Shawkat remove her from this jail. Be that as it may, Shawkat isn't utilized. But Finally, he chooses childishly to leave his sisters all alone and to escape with Mariam. Be that as it may, he doesn't prevail to gather cash. He returns home discovers his sisters lying on the bed who as of now have done suicide and he himself additionally drinks some sort of toxic substance and bites the dust. Mariam attempts to escape the place of Sultan yet falls flat. Quite a while later, another family comes to live in a similar house Shawkat's family lived and Mariam is seen remaining in the gallery and watching them as past.    The film contains strong socio-political messaging by showing how the masses of the society is having to contend with the oppressive forces that the elites push down upon them through the capitalist mechanism. Zahir Raihan was known as being someone who prescribed to the communist philosophy and within ‘Kokhono Asheni’ we can see his ideals being reflected. Many film critics have also cited Raihan’s films being his vessel to fight for the rights of people and for equality.    ‘Kokhono Asheni’ makes particularly good use of symbolism to portray the socio-political tension that existed in society between the oppressors and the oppressed at the time. It might even be argued that Raihan was portraying the struggles of Shawkat, his family and Mariam as being representative of the struggle of the Bangladeshis against the Pakistani oppressors. I think this was Zahir Raihan’s intention. Raihan was an ardent patriot and had been a very active activist in all forms of social causes and believed in using his films to give voice to the voiceless and the powerless.    The art collector, Sultan, represents the Pakistani despots. His description of his ‘acquisition’ of Mariam and her subsequent state of affairs bears a striking resemblance to the story of East Pakistan. When Sultan first takes Shawkat to his house to view his art collection, he tells him how he had ‘freed’ Mariam when he had acquired her. Yet, Sultan’s definition of freedom might not match many of ours. This is very much symbolic of how East Pakistan gained independence as a nation from the colonial forces of the British in 1947 and yet, having gained supposed freedom, did not seem to enjoy any of the associated benefits of freedom. Just as Mariam had no agency or autonomy over her life, neither did East Pakistan over its affairs.    The film symbolizes the circumstance of the individuals of Bangladesh under the Pakistani system during the 1960s, when individuals of the nation were mistreated by the rulers. He sees Mariam as illustrative of East Bengal and Sultan as illustrative of West Bengal. Individuals of East Bengal attempted quite a while for their opportunity however it didn't come till the creation of the film as Mariam attempts to be free yet can't. Be that as it may, the chief keeps the expectation bursting at the seams with the shot of Mariam remaining in the overhang sitting tight for the opportunity.    The film begins with a title arrangement comprising of a moving image of a running wheel of a steed carriage distinctive still photos of the film. The stills are of various circumstances, of satisfaction, of pity. The running wheel is appeared between each two stills. This might be a sign towards life that there happen numerous things however life or time never stops. There might be distresses and more distresses from that point forward, yet at the same time, life goes on. Life continues relying upon the expectations. That is the reason we see the notorious shot of Mariam remaining in the gallery sitting tight for opportunity from beginning as far as possible.    Sumita Devi in Kokhono Asheni (1961) Movie     The plight of the middle class salary man is also vividly highlighted in Kokhono Asheni. When Shawkat’s father loses his job, and eventually dies, the reality of living in a capitalist society as an artist dawns on him. The entire burden of providing for himself and his two sisters falls squarely on his shoulders. He is forced to give up on his bohemian way of life and look for work. Mariam, who he is in love with, also begs him to rescue her from Sultan but Shawkat cannot do so because he does not have the means. At this very critical juncture, he starts seeing his two sisters as being unnecessary burdens on him, people who are disposable from his life. Raihan shows how the capitalist institution slowly kills the artist’s spirit and entraps him in society’s pitfalls. Up until that point, we were shown a very loving relationship between Shawkat and his two sisters but when he eventually is faced with the choice of the responsibility of an elder brother, in the traditional Bangladeshi sense, versus pursuing his own desires, he chooses the latter. He in fact tells his two sisters via a letter, “In this world we are all alone, I am going on my own path, you choose your own.” Thus, we can once again see Raihan critiquing the capitalist mandate of individualism over collectivism as this act by Shawkat effectively leads to the death of his two sisters.    However, the film did not legitimately include any political thought, its season of making and the characters make us accept it as a political film. In any case, the film worked too inconspicuously to depict the political circumstance. In the wake of finding the carcasses by the police, in the portrayal it is said that might be numerous months or numerous years after the fact, another family comes to live in the house. Time is kept covered up here. It might be in one side for being in the protected zone from the abusing government and on the opposite side for motivating the desire for opportunity in the psyche of individuals. Since upset may occur however there is no fixed time for this, it might happen soon or later yet one needs to trust in its plausibility.    “A disconcerting conclusion might dictate itself; while they stress that ‘every society’ is shot through with class struggle with throughout the course of its development, and that all historical struggles are class struggles, Marx and Engels resort to their theory only intermittently”.    Khan Ataur Rahman and Sumita Devi in Kokhono Asheni (1961) Movie     Above the economic structure rises the superstructure, consisting of legal and political ‘forms of social consciousness’ that correspond to the economic structure. Marx says nothing about the nature of this correspondence between ideological forms and economic structure, except that through the ideological forms individuals become conscious of the conflict within the economic structure between the material forces of production and the existing relations of production expressed in the legal property relations.    The Marxist way to deal with culture alludes to the analysis of writings and practices in connection to their recorded state of generation. As indicated by Marx, each critical time of history is built around a specific method of generation where every method of creation produces explicit social connections among laborers and the individuals who control the method of generation. The point of departure of human history is therefore living human beings, who seek to satisfy certain primary needs. The first historical fact is the production of the means to satisfy these needs. This satisfaction, in turn, opens the way for new needs. Human activity is thus essentially a struggle with nature that must furnish the means of satisfying human needs: drink, food, clothing, the development of human powers and then of human intellectual and artistic abilities. In this undertaking, people discover themselves as productive beings who humanize themselves through their labor.  The separation between the common laborers and the decision class is evident the framework. Regular workers is overwhelmed and abused by the decision class. Laborers are estranged from their item which causes them to acknowledge the strength of the decision class. What's more, this occurs as a chain over and over with the exception of any insurgency occurs. This procedure is just depicted in the film where we see the families coming in the structure and biting the dust over and over.    “Feminism is becoming an increasingly accepted part of ordinary social and political discourse, even if it is not viewed in the same light by everyone. Feminism is often represented in everyday discussions, as well as in lecture rooms, as a single entity and somehow concerned with equality.”    In this film ‘Kokhono Asheni’ the term feminism can be used to describe a political, cultural or economic movement aimed at establishing equal rights and legal protection for women. Feminism involves political and sociological theories and philosophies concerned with issues of gender differences as well as a movement that advocates gender equality for women and campaigns for women’s rights and interests.     Kokhono Asheni is indeed a pleasure and a joy to behold. The acting by the cast are remarkable, the score and music is quite brilliant and Raihan’s first effort as a director is more than just commendable. It is a landmark film in the Bangladeshi film industry that not has an abundance of style but substance in galore with important messages in an important period in the history of the people of this land.     Watch the full movie 'Kokhono Asheni (1961) directed by Zahir Raihan here...
Khan Ataur Rahman and Sumita Devi in Kokhono Asheni (1961) Movie 


Md. Tanjir Alam 
‘Kokhono Asheni’(1961), is the first movie of Zahir Raihan as a director. The title of the film alludes to something which is normal however not found ever. ‘Kokhono Asheni’ the directorial debut of Zahir Raihan, is a landmark film in the history of Bangladeshi filmmaking. Although Raihan had previously worked as an assistant director to A J Karder in the film Jago Huya Savera, it is with Kokhono Asheni that he truly announced his arrival on the filmmaking stage. The film, however, was well received by critics as ground-breaking in its substance, style and narrative elements. It can be broadly categorized under the ‘experimental art film’ category, albeit feeling like a social melodrama.

‘Kokhono Asheni’ is set against the backdrop of 1960s Dhaka in the then East Pakistan. As such, it provides us with a rare opportunity to see life of the average middle-class Bangladeshi in Dhaka. The film essentially speaks to the account of a lower-class family, their life battle, a lady and her story and the musings of the general public of the 1960s in a very efficient account style. A rich individual named Sultan regards a lady as a model, as a piece of his own gallery whom he purchased with just 50 taka when she was a kid. However, the lady is youthful at this point. She needs to escape this historical center and needs to be dealt with like a human. She experiences passionate feelings for Shawkat, a youthful painter lives in alongside her structure.
 Khan Ataur Rahman and Sumita Devi in Kokhono Asheni (1961) Movie       Md. Tanjir Alam   ‘Kokhono Asheni’(1961), is the first movie of Zahir Raihan as a director. The title of the film alludes to something which is normal however not found ever. ‘Kokhono Asheni’ the directorial debut of Zahir Raihan, is a landmark film in the history of Bangladeshi filmmaking. Although Raihan had previously worked as an assistant director to A J Karder in the film Jago Huya Savera, it is with Kokhono Asheni that he truly announced his arrival on the filmmaking stage. The film, however, was well received by critics as ground-breaking in its substance, style and narrative elements. It can be broadly categorized under the ‘experimental art film’ category, albeit feeling like a social melodrama.    ‘Kokhono Asheni’ is set against the backdrop of 1960s Dhaka in the then East Pakistan. As such, it provides us with a rare opportunity to see life of the average middle-class Bangladeshi in Dhaka. The film essentially speaks to the account of a lower-class family, their life battle, a lady and her story and the musings of the general public of the 1960s in a very efficient account style. A rich individual named Sultan regards a lady as a model, as a piece of his own gallery whom he purchased with just 50 taka when she was a kid. However, the lady is youthful at this point. She needs to escape this historical center and needs to be dealt with like a human. She experiences passionate feelings for Shawkat, a youthful painter lives in alongside her structure.    Khan Ataur Rahman and Sumita Devi in Kokhono Asheni (1961) Movie     Shawkat’s life as a bohemian artist perfectly illustrates the life of an artist in Dhaka during the 60s. Shawkat’s choice of attire is something that is particularly striking when we talk about middle class sensibilities portrayed within the film. We also see Shawkat and his friends regularly hanging out at cafes partaking in the favourite Bengali pastime of ‘Addabaji’. He holds art exhibitions of his work and critics and collectors seem to deem his work praiseworthy. Shawkat portrays the perfect embodiment of a chic young artist. She needs Shawkat remove her from this jail. Be that as it may, Shawkat isn't utilized. But Finally, he chooses childishly to leave his sisters all alone and to escape with Mariam. Be that as it may, he doesn't prevail to gather cash. He returns home discovers his sisters lying on the bed who as of now have done suicide and he himself additionally drinks some sort of toxic substance and bites the dust. Mariam attempts to escape the place of Sultan yet falls flat. Quite a while later, another family comes to live in a similar house Shawkat's family lived and Mariam is seen remaining in the gallery and watching them as past.    The film contains strong socio-political messaging by showing how the masses of the society is having to contend with the oppressive forces that the elites push down upon them through the capitalist mechanism. Zahir Raihan was known as being someone who prescribed to the communist philosophy and within ‘Kokhono Asheni’ we can see his ideals being reflected. Many film critics have also cited Raihan’s films being his vessel to fight for the rights of people and for equality.    ‘Kokhono Asheni’ makes particularly good use of symbolism to portray the socio-political tension that existed in society between the oppressors and the oppressed at the time. It might even be argued that Raihan was portraying the struggles of Shawkat, his family and Mariam as being representative of the struggle of the Bangladeshis against the Pakistani oppressors. I think this was Zahir Raihan’s intention. Raihan was an ardent patriot and had been a very active activist in all forms of social causes and believed in using his films to give voice to the voiceless and the powerless.    The art collector, Sultan, represents the Pakistani despots. His description of his ‘acquisition’ of Mariam and her subsequent state of affairs bears a striking resemblance to the story of East Pakistan. When Sultan first takes Shawkat to his house to view his art collection, he tells him how he had ‘freed’ Mariam when he had acquired her. Yet, Sultan’s definition of freedom might not match many of ours. This is very much symbolic of how East Pakistan gained independence as a nation from the colonial forces of the British in 1947 and yet, having gained supposed freedom, did not seem to enjoy any of the associated benefits of freedom. Just as Mariam had no agency or autonomy over her life, neither did East Pakistan over its affairs.    The film symbolizes the circumstance of the individuals of Bangladesh under the Pakistani system during the 1960s, when individuals of the nation were mistreated by the rulers. He sees Mariam as illustrative of East Bengal and Sultan as illustrative of West Bengal. Individuals of East Bengal attempted quite a while for their opportunity however it didn't come till the creation of the film as Mariam attempts to be free yet can't. Be that as it may, the chief keeps the expectation bursting at the seams with the shot of Mariam remaining in the overhang sitting tight for the opportunity.    The film begins with a title arrangement comprising of a moving image of a running wheel of a steed carriage distinctive still photos of the film. The stills are of various circumstances, of satisfaction, of pity. The running wheel is appeared between each two stills. This might be a sign towards life that there happen numerous things however life or time never stops. There might be distresses and more distresses from that point forward, yet at the same time, life goes on. Life continues relying upon the expectations. That is the reason we see the notorious shot of Mariam remaining in the gallery sitting tight for opportunity from beginning as far as possible.    Sumita Devi in Kokhono Asheni (1961) Movie     The plight of the middle class salary man is also vividly highlighted in Kokhono Asheni. When Shawkat’s father loses his job, and eventually dies, the reality of living in a capitalist society as an artist dawns on him. The entire burden of providing for himself and his two sisters falls squarely on his shoulders. He is forced to give up on his bohemian way of life and look for work. Mariam, who he is in love with, also begs him to rescue her from Sultan but Shawkat cannot do so because he does not have the means. At this very critical juncture, he starts seeing his two sisters as being unnecessary burdens on him, people who are disposable from his life. Raihan shows how the capitalist institution slowly kills the artist’s spirit and entraps him in society’s pitfalls. Up until that point, we were shown a very loving relationship between Shawkat and his two sisters but when he eventually is faced with the choice of the responsibility of an elder brother, in the traditional Bangladeshi sense, versus pursuing his own desires, he chooses the latter. He in fact tells his two sisters via a letter, “In this world we are all alone, I am going on my own path, you choose your own.” Thus, we can once again see Raihan critiquing the capitalist mandate of individualism over collectivism as this act by Shawkat effectively leads to the death of his two sisters.    However, the film did not legitimately include any political thought, its season of making and the characters make us accept it as a political film. In any case, the film worked too inconspicuously to depict the political circumstance. In the wake of finding the carcasses by the police, in the portrayal it is said that might be numerous months or numerous years after the fact, another family comes to live in the house. Time is kept covered up here. It might be in one side for being in the protected zone from the abusing government and on the opposite side for motivating the desire for opportunity in the psyche of individuals. Since upset may occur however there is no fixed time for this, it might happen soon or later yet one needs to trust in its plausibility.    “A disconcerting conclusion might dictate itself; while they stress that ‘every society’ is shot through with class struggle with throughout the course of its development, and that all historical struggles are class struggles, Marx and Engels resort to their theory only intermittently”.    Khan Ataur Rahman and Sumita Devi in Kokhono Asheni (1961) Movie     Above the economic structure rises the superstructure, consisting of legal and political ‘forms of social consciousness’ that correspond to the economic structure. Marx says nothing about the nature of this correspondence between ideological forms and economic structure, except that through the ideological forms individuals become conscious of the conflict within the economic structure between the material forces of production and the existing relations of production expressed in the legal property relations.    The Marxist way to deal with culture alludes to the analysis of writings and practices in connection to their recorded state of generation. As indicated by Marx, each critical time of history is built around a specific method of generation where every method of creation produces explicit social connections among laborers and the individuals who control the method of generation. The point of departure of human history is therefore living human beings, who seek to satisfy certain primary needs. The first historical fact is the production of the means to satisfy these needs. This satisfaction, in turn, opens the way for new needs. Human activity is thus essentially a struggle with nature that must furnish the means of satisfying human needs: drink, food, clothing, the development of human powers and then of human intellectual and artistic abilities. In this undertaking, people discover themselves as productive beings who humanize themselves through their labor.  The separation between the common laborers and the decision class is evident the framework. Regular workers is overwhelmed and abused by the decision class. Laborers are estranged from their item which causes them to acknowledge the strength of the decision class. What's more, this occurs as a chain over and over with the exception of any insurgency occurs. This procedure is just depicted in the film where we see the families coming in the structure and biting the dust over and over.    “Feminism is becoming an increasingly accepted part of ordinary social and political discourse, even if it is not viewed in the same light by everyone. Feminism is often represented in everyday discussions, as well as in lecture rooms, as a single entity and somehow concerned with equality.”    In this film ‘Kokhono Asheni’ the term feminism can be used to describe a political, cultural or economic movement aimed at establishing equal rights and legal protection for women. Feminism involves political and sociological theories and philosophies concerned with issues of gender differences as well as a movement that advocates gender equality for women and campaigns for women’s rights and interests.     Kokhono Asheni is indeed a pleasure and a joy to behold. The acting by the cast are remarkable, the score and music is quite brilliant and Raihan’s first effort as a director is more than just commendable. It is a landmark film in the Bangladeshi film industry that not has an abundance of style but substance in galore with important messages in an important period in the history of the people of this land.     Watch the full movie 'Kokhono Asheni (1961) directed by Zahir Raihan here...
Khan Ataur Rahman and Sumita Devi in Kokhono Asheni (1961) Movie 

Shawkat’s life as a bohemian artist perfectly illustrates the life of an artist in Dhaka during the 60s. Shawkat’s choice of attire is something that is particularly striking when we talk about middle class sensibilities portrayed within the film. We also see Shawkat and his friends regularly hanging out at cafes partaking in the favourite Bengali pastime of ‘Addabaji’. He holds art exhibitions of his work and critics and collectors seem to deem his work praiseworthy. Shawkat portrays the perfect embodiment of a chic young artist. She needs Shawkat remove her from this jail. Be that as it may, Shawkat isn't utilized. But Finally, he chooses childishly to leave his sisters all alone and to escape with Mariam. Be that as it may, he doesn't prevail to gather cash. He returns home discovers his sisters lying on the bed who as of now have done suicide and he himself additionally drinks some sort of toxic substance and bites the dust. Mariam attempts to escape the place of Sultan yet falls flat. Quite a while later, another family comes to live in a similar house Shawkat's family lived and Mariam is seen remaining in the gallery and watching them as past.

The film contains strong socio-political messaging by showing how the masses of the society is having to contend with the oppressive forces that the elites push down upon them through the capitalist mechanism. Zahir Raihan was known as being someone who prescribed to the communist philosophy and within ‘Kokhono Asheni’ we can see his ideals being reflected. Many film critics have also cited Raihan’s films being his vessel to fight for the rights of people and for equality.

‘Kokhono Asheni’ makes particularly good use of symbolism to portray the socio-political tension that existed in society between the oppressors and the oppressed at the time. It might even be argued that Raihan was portraying the struggles of Shawkat, his family and Mariam as being representative of the struggle of the Bangladeshis against the Pakistani oppressors. I think this was Zahir Raihan’s intention. Raihan was an ardent patriot and had been a very active activist in all forms of social causes and believed in using his films to give voice to the voiceless and the powerless.

The art collector, Sultan, represents the Pakistani despots. His description of his ‘acquisition’ of Mariam and her subsequent state of affairs bears a striking resemblance to the story of East Pakistan. When Sultan first takes Shawkat to his house to view his art collection, he tells him how he had ‘freed’ Mariam when he had acquired her. Yet, Sultan’s definition of freedom might not match many of ours. This is very much symbolic of how East Pakistan gained independence as a nation from the colonial forces of the British in 1947 and yet, having gained supposed freedom, did not seem to enjoy any of the associated benefits of freedom. Just as Mariam had no agency or autonomy over her life, neither did East Pakistan over its affairs.

The film symbolizes the circumstance of the individuals of Bangladesh under the Pakistani system during the 1960s, when individuals of the nation were mistreated by the rulers. He sees Mariam as illustrative of East Bengal and Sultan as illustrative of West Bengal. Individuals of East Bengal attempted quite a while for their opportunity however it didn't come till the creation of the film as Mariam attempts to be free yet can't. Be that as it may, the chief keeps the expectation bursting at the seams with the shot of Mariam remaining in the overhang sitting tight for the opportunity.

The film begins with a title arrangement comprising of a moving image of a running wheel of a steed carriage distinctive still photos of the film. The stills are of various circumstances, of satisfaction, of pity. The running wheel is appeared between each two stills. This might be a sign towards life that there happen numerous things however life or time never stops. There might be distresses and more distresses from that point forward, yet at the same time, life goes on. Life continues relying upon the expectations. That is the reason we see the notorious shot of Mariam remaining in the gallery sitting tight for opportunity from beginning as far as possible.
 Khan Ataur Rahman and Sumita Devi in Kokhono Asheni (1961) Movie       Md. Tanjir Alam   ‘Kokhono Asheni’(1961), is the first movie of Zahir Raihan as a director. The title of the film alludes to something which is normal however not found ever. ‘Kokhono Asheni’ the directorial debut of Zahir Raihan, is a landmark film in the history of Bangladeshi filmmaking. Although Raihan had previously worked as an assistant director to A J Karder in the film Jago Huya Savera, it is with Kokhono Asheni that he truly announced his arrival on the filmmaking stage. The film, however, was well received by critics as ground-breaking in its substance, style and narrative elements. It can be broadly categorized under the ‘experimental art film’ category, albeit feeling like a social melodrama.    ‘Kokhono Asheni’ is set against the backdrop of 1960s Dhaka in the then East Pakistan. As such, it provides us with a rare opportunity to see life of the average middle-class Bangladeshi in Dhaka. The film essentially speaks to the account of a lower-class family, their life battle, a lady and her story and the musings of the general public of the 1960s in a very efficient account style. A rich individual named Sultan regards a lady as a model, as a piece of his own gallery whom he purchased with just 50 taka when she was a kid. However, the lady is youthful at this point. She needs to escape this historical center and needs to be dealt with like a human. She experiences passionate feelings for Shawkat, a youthful painter lives in alongside her structure.    Khan Ataur Rahman and Sumita Devi in Kokhono Asheni (1961) Movie     Shawkat’s life as a bohemian artist perfectly illustrates the life of an artist in Dhaka during the 60s. Shawkat’s choice of attire is something that is particularly striking when we talk about middle class sensibilities portrayed within the film. We also see Shawkat and his friends regularly hanging out at cafes partaking in the favourite Bengali pastime of ‘Addabaji’. He holds art exhibitions of his work and critics and collectors seem to deem his work praiseworthy. Shawkat portrays the perfect embodiment of a chic young artist. She needs Shawkat remove her from this jail. Be that as it may, Shawkat isn't utilized. But Finally, he chooses childishly to leave his sisters all alone and to escape with Mariam. Be that as it may, he doesn't prevail to gather cash. He returns home discovers his sisters lying on the bed who as of now have done suicide and he himself additionally drinks some sort of toxic substance and bites the dust. Mariam attempts to escape the place of Sultan yet falls flat. Quite a while later, another family comes to live in a similar house Shawkat's family lived and Mariam is seen remaining in the gallery and watching them as past.    The film contains strong socio-political messaging by showing how the masses of the society is having to contend with the oppressive forces that the elites push down upon them through the capitalist mechanism. Zahir Raihan was known as being someone who prescribed to the communist philosophy and within ‘Kokhono Asheni’ we can see his ideals being reflected. Many film critics have also cited Raihan’s films being his vessel to fight for the rights of people and for equality.    ‘Kokhono Asheni’ makes particularly good use of symbolism to portray the socio-political tension that existed in society between the oppressors and the oppressed at the time. It might even be argued that Raihan was portraying the struggles of Shawkat, his family and Mariam as being representative of the struggle of the Bangladeshis against the Pakistani oppressors. I think this was Zahir Raihan’s intention. Raihan was an ardent patriot and had been a very active activist in all forms of social causes and believed in using his films to give voice to the voiceless and the powerless.    The art collector, Sultan, represents the Pakistani despots. His description of his ‘acquisition’ of Mariam and her subsequent state of affairs bears a striking resemblance to the story of East Pakistan. When Sultan first takes Shawkat to his house to view his art collection, he tells him how he had ‘freed’ Mariam when he had acquired her. Yet, Sultan’s definition of freedom might not match many of ours. This is very much symbolic of how East Pakistan gained independence as a nation from the colonial forces of the British in 1947 and yet, having gained supposed freedom, did not seem to enjoy any of the associated benefits of freedom. Just as Mariam had no agency or autonomy over her life, neither did East Pakistan over its affairs.    The film symbolizes the circumstance of the individuals of Bangladesh under the Pakistani system during the 1960s, when individuals of the nation were mistreated by the rulers. He sees Mariam as illustrative of East Bengal and Sultan as illustrative of West Bengal. Individuals of East Bengal attempted quite a while for their opportunity however it didn't come till the creation of the film as Mariam attempts to be free yet can't. Be that as it may, the chief keeps the expectation bursting at the seams with the shot of Mariam remaining in the overhang sitting tight for the opportunity.    The film begins with a title arrangement comprising of a moving image of a running wheel of a steed carriage distinctive still photos of the film. The stills are of various circumstances, of satisfaction, of pity. The running wheel is appeared between each two stills. This might be a sign towards life that there happen numerous things however life or time never stops. There might be distresses and more distresses from that point forward, yet at the same time, life goes on. Life continues relying upon the expectations. That is the reason we see the notorious shot of Mariam remaining in the gallery sitting tight for opportunity from beginning as far as possible.    Sumita Devi in Kokhono Asheni (1961) Movie     The plight of the middle class salary man is also vividly highlighted in Kokhono Asheni. When Shawkat’s father loses his job, and eventually dies, the reality of living in a capitalist society as an artist dawns on him. The entire burden of providing for himself and his two sisters falls squarely on his shoulders. He is forced to give up on his bohemian way of life and look for work. Mariam, who he is in love with, also begs him to rescue her from Sultan but Shawkat cannot do so because he does not have the means. At this very critical juncture, he starts seeing his two sisters as being unnecessary burdens on him, people who are disposable from his life. Raihan shows how the capitalist institution slowly kills the artist’s spirit and entraps him in society’s pitfalls. Up until that point, we were shown a very loving relationship between Shawkat and his two sisters but when he eventually is faced with the choice of the responsibility of an elder brother, in the traditional Bangladeshi sense, versus pursuing his own desires, he chooses the latter. He in fact tells his two sisters via a letter, “In this world we are all alone, I am going on my own path, you choose your own.” Thus, we can once again see Raihan critiquing the capitalist mandate of individualism over collectivism as this act by Shawkat effectively leads to the death of his two sisters.    However, the film did not legitimately include any political thought, its season of making and the characters make us accept it as a political film. In any case, the film worked too inconspicuously to depict the political circumstance. In the wake of finding the carcasses by the police, in the portrayal it is said that might be numerous months or numerous years after the fact, another family comes to live in the house. Time is kept covered up here. It might be in one side for being in the protected zone from the abusing government and on the opposite side for motivating the desire for opportunity in the psyche of individuals. Since upset may occur however there is no fixed time for this, it might happen soon or later yet one needs to trust in its plausibility.    “A disconcerting conclusion might dictate itself; while they stress that ‘every society’ is shot through with class struggle with throughout the course of its development, and that all historical struggles are class struggles, Marx and Engels resort to their theory only intermittently”.    Khan Ataur Rahman and Sumita Devi in Kokhono Asheni (1961) Movie     Above the economic structure rises the superstructure, consisting of legal and political ‘forms of social consciousness’ that correspond to the economic structure. Marx says nothing about the nature of this correspondence between ideological forms and economic structure, except that through the ideological forms individuals become conscious of the conflict within the economic structure between the material forces of production and the existing relations of production expressed in the legal property relations.    The Marxist way to deal with culture alludes to the analysis of writings and practices in connection to their recorded state of generation. As indicated by Marx, each critical time of history is built around a specific method of generation where every method of creation produces explicit social connections among laborers and the individuals who control the method of generation. The point of departure of human history is therefore living human beings, who seek to satisfy certain primary needs. The first historical fact is the production of the means to satisfy these needs. This satisfaction, in turn, opens the way for new needs. Human activity is thus essentially a struggle with nature that must furnish the means of satisfying human needs: drink, food, clothing, the development of human powers and then of human intellectual and artistic abilities. In this undertaking, people discover themselves as productive beings who humanize themselves through their labor.  The separation between the common laborers and the decision class is evident the framework. Regular workers is overwhelmed and abused by the decision class. Laborers are estranged from their item which causes them to acknowledge the strength of the decision class. What's more, this occurs as a chain over and over with the exception of any insurgency occurs. This procedure is just depicted in the film where we see the families coming in the structure and biting the dust over and over.    “Feminism is becoming an increasingly accepted part of ordinary social and political discourse, even if it is not viewed in the same light by everyone. Feminism is often represented in everyday discussions, as well as in lecture rooms, as a single entity and somehow concerned with equality.”    In this film ‘Kokhono Asheni’ the term feminism can be used to describe a political, cultural or economic movement aimed at establishing equal rights and legal protection for women. Feminism involves political and sociological theories and philosophies concerned with issues of gender differences as well as a movement that advocates gender equality for women and campaigns for women’s rights and interests.     Kokhono Asheni is indeed a pleasure and a joy to behold. The acting by the cast are remarkable, the score and music is quite brilliant and Raihan’s first effort as a director is more than just commendable. It is a landmark film in the Bangladeshi film industry that not has an abundance of style but substance in galore with important messages in an important period in the history of the people of this land.     Watch the full movie 'Kokhono Asheni (1961) directed by Zahir Raihan here...
Sumita Devi in Kokhono Asheni (1961) Movie 

The plight of the middle class salary man is also vividly highlighted in Kokhono Asheni. When Shawkat’s father loses his job, and eventually dies, the reality of living in a capitalist society as an artist dawns on him. The entire burden of providing for himself and his two sisters falls squarely on his shoulders. He is forced to give up on his bohemian way of life and look for work. Mariam, who he is in love with, also begs him to rescue her from Sultan but Shawkat cannot do so because he does not have the means. At this very critical juncture, he starts seeing his two sisters as being unnecessary burdens on him, people who are disposable from his life. Raihan shows how the capitalist institution slowly kills the artist’s spirit and entraps him in society’s pitfalls. Up until that point, we were shown a very loving relationship between Shawkat and his two sisters but when he eventually is faced with the choice of the responsibility of an elder brother, in the traditional Bangladeshi sense, versus pursuing his own desires, he chooses the latter. He in fact tells his two sisters via a letter, “In this world we are all alone, I am going on my own path, you choose your own.” Thus, we can once again see Raihan critiquing the capitalist mandate of individualism over collectivism as this act by Shawkat effectively leads to the death of his two sisters.

However, the film did not legitimately include any political thought, its season of making and the characters make us accept it as a political film. In any case, the film worked too inconspicuously to depict the political circumstance. In the wake of finding the carcasses by the police, in the portrayal it is said that might be numerous months or numerous years after the fact, another family comes to live in the house. Time is kept covered up here. It might be in one side for being in the protected zone from the abusing government and on the opposite side for motivating the desire for opportunity in the psyche of individuals. Since upset may occur however there is no fixed time for this, it might happen soon or later yet one needs to trust in its plausibility.

“A disconcerting conclusion might dictate itself; while they stress that ‘every society’ is shot through with class struggle with throughout the course of its development, and that all historical struggles are class struggles, Marx and Engels resort to their theory only intermittently”.
 Khan Ataur Rahman and Sumita Devi in Kokhono Asheni (1961) Movie       Md. Tanjir Alam   ‘Kokhono Asheni’(1961), is the first movie of Zahir Raihan as a director. The title of the film alludes to something which is normal however not found ever. ‘Kokhono Asheni’ the directorial debut of Zahir Raihan, is a landmark film in the history of Bangladeshi filmmaking. Although Raihan had previously worked as an assistant director to A J Karder in the film Jago Huya Savera, it is with Kokhono Asheni that he truly announced his arrival on the filmmaking stage. The film, however, was well received by critics as ground-breaking in its substance, style and narrative elements. It can be broadly categorized under the ‘experimental art film’ category, albeit feeling like a social melodrama.    ‘Kokhono Asheni’ is set against the backdrop of 1960s Dhaka in the then East Pakistan. As such, it provides us with a rare opportunity to see life of the average middle-class Bangladeshi in Dhaka. The film essentially speaks to the account of a lower-class family, their life battle, a lady and her story and the musings of the general public of the 1960s in a very efficient account style. A rich individual named Sultan regards a lady as a model, as a piece of his own gallery whom he purchased with just 50 taka when she was a kid. However, the lady is youthful at this point. She needs to escape this historical center and needs to be dealt with like a human. She experiences passionate feelings for Shawkat, a youthful painter lives in alongside her structure.    Khan Ataur Rahman and Sumita Devi in Kokhono Asheni (1961) Movie     Shawkat’s life as a bohemian artist perfectly illustrates the life of an artist in Dhaka during the 60s. Shawkat’s choice of attire is something that is particularly striking when we talk about middle class sensibilities portrayed within the film. We also see Shawkat and his friends regularly hanging out at cafes partaking in the favourite Bengali pastime of ‘Addabaji’. He holds art exhibitions of his work and critics and collectors seem to deem his work praiseworthy. Shawkat portrays the perfect embodiment of a chic young artist. She needs Shawkat remove her from this jail. Be that as it may, Shawkat isn't utilized. But Finally, he chooses childishly to leave his sisters all alone and to escape with Mariam. Be that as it may, he doesn't prevail to gather cash. He returns home discovers his sisters lying on the bed who as of now have done suicide and he himself additionally drinks some sort of toxic substance and bites the dust. Mariam attempts to escape the place of Sultan yet falls flat. Quite a while later, another family comes to live in a similar house Shawkat's family lived and Mariam is seen remaining in the gallery and watching them as past.    The film contains strong socio-political messaging by showing how the masses of the society is having to contend with the oppressive forces that the elites push down upon them through the capitalist mechanism. Zahir Raihan was known as being someone who prescribed to the communist philosophy and within ‘Kokhono Asheni’ we can see his ideals being reflected. Many film critics have also cited Raihan’s films being his vessel to fight for the rights of people and for equality.    ‘Kokhono Asheni’ makes particularly good use of symbolism to portray the socio-political tension that existed in society between the oppressors and the oppressed at the time. It might even be argued that Raihan was portraying the struggles of Shawkat, his family and Mariam as being representative of the struggle of the Bangladeshis against the Pakistani oppressors. I think this was Zahir Raihan’s intention. Raihan was an ardent patriot and had been a very active activist in all forms of social causes and believed in using his films to give voice to the voiceless and the powerless.    The art collector, Sultan, represents the Pakistani despots. His description of his ‘acquisition’ of Mariam and her subsequent state of affairs bears a striking resemblance to the story of East Pakistan. When Sultan first takes Shawkat to his house to view his art collection, he tells him how he had ‘freed’ Mariam when he had acquired her. Yet, Sultan’s definition of freedom might not match many of ours. This is very much symbolic of how East Pakistan gained independence as a nation from the colonial forces of the British in 1947 and yet, having gained supposed freedom, did not seem to enjoy any of the associated benefits of freedom. Just as Mariam had no agency or autonomy over her life, neither did East Pakistan over its affairs.    The film symbolizes the circumstance of the individuals of Bangladesh under the Pakistani system during the 1960s, when individuals of the nation were mistreated by the rulers. He sees Mariam as illustrative of East Bengal and Sultan as illustrative of West Bengal. Individuals of East Bengal attempted quite a while for their opportunity however it didn't come till the creation of the film as Mariam attempts to be free yet can't. Be that as it may, the chief keeps the expectation bursting at the seams with the shot of Mariam remaining in the overhang sitting tight for the opportunity.    The film begins with a title arrangement comprising of a moving image of a running wheel of a steed carriage distinctive still photos of the film. The stills are of various circumstances, of satisfaction, of pity. The running wheel is appeared between each two stills. This might be a sign towards life that there happen numerous things however life or time never stops. There might be distresses and more distresses from that point forward, yet at the same time, life goes on. Life continues relying upon the expectations. That is the reason we see the notorious shot of Mariam remaining in the gallery sitting tight for opportunity from beginning as far as possible.    Sumita Devi in Kokhono Asheni (1961) Movie     The plight of the middle class salary man is also vividly highlighted in Kokhono Asheni. When Shawkat’s father loses his job, and eventually dies, the reality of living in a capitalist society as an artist dawns on him. The entire burden of providing for himself and his two sisters falls squarely on his shoulders. He is forced to give up on his bohemian way of life and look for work. Mariam, who he is in love with, also begs him to rescue her from Sultan but Shawkat cannot do so because he does not have the means. At this very critical juncture, he starts seeing his two sisters as being unnecessary burdens on him, people who are disposable from his life. Raihan shows how the capitalist institution slowly kills the artist’s spirit and entraps him in society’s pitfalls. Up until that point, we were shown a very loving relationship between Shawkat and his two sisters but when he eventually is faced with the choice of the responsibility of an elder brother, in the traditional Bangladeshi sense, versus pursuing his own desires, he chooses the latter. He in fact tells his two sisters via a letter, “In this world we are all alone, I am going on my own path, you choose your own.” Thus, we can once again see Raihan critiquing the capitalist mandate of individualism over collectivism as this act by Shawkat effectively leads to the death of his two sisters.    However, the film did not legitimately include any political thought, its season of making and the characters make us accept it as a political film. In any case, the film worked too inconspicuously to depict the political circumstance. In the wake of finding the carcasses by the police, in the portrayal it is said that might be numerous months or numerous years after the fact, another family comes to live in the house. Time is kept covered up here. It might be in one side for being in the protected zone from the abusing government and on the opposite side for motivating the desire for opportunity in the psyche of individuals. Since upset may occur however there is no fixed time for this, it might happen soon or later yet one needs to trust in its plausibility.    “A disconcerting conclusion might dictate itself; while they stress that ‘every society’ is shot through with class struggle with throughout the course of its development, and that all historical struggles are class struggles, Marx and Engels resort to their theory only intermittently”.    Khan Ataur Rahman and Sumita Devi in Kokhono Asheni (1961) Movie     Above the economic structure rises the superstructure, consisting of legal and political ‘forms of social consciousness’ that correspond to the economic structure. Marx says nothing about the nature of this correspondence between ideological forms and economic structure, except that through the ideological forms individuals become conscious of the conflict within the economic structure between the material forces of production and the existing relations of production expressed in the legal property relations.    The Marxist way to deal with culture alludes to the analysis of writings and practices in connection to their recorded state of generation. As indicated by Marx, each critical time of history is built around a specific method of generation where every method of creation produces explicit social connections among laborers and the individuals who control the method of generation. The point of departure of human history is therefore living human beings, who seek to satisfy certain primary needs. The first historical fact is the production of the means to satisfy these needs. This satisfaction, in turn, opens the way for new needs. Human activity is thus essentially a struggle with nature that must furnish the means of satisfying human needs: drink, food, clothing, the development of human powers and then of human intellectual and artistic abilities. In this undertaking, people discover themselves as productive beings who humanize themselves through their labor.  The separation between the common laborers and the decision class is evident the framework. Regular workers is overwhelmed and abused by the decision class. Laborers are estranged from their item which causes them to acknowledge the strength of the decision class. What's more, this occurs as a chain over and over with the exception of any insurgency occurs. This procedure is just depicted in the film where we see the families coming in the structure and biting the dust over and over.    “Feminism is becoming an increasingly accepted part of ordinary social and political discourse, even if it is not viewed in the same light by everyone. Feminism is often represented in everyday discussions, as well as in lecture rooms, as a single entity and somehow concerned with equality.”    In this film ‘Kokhono Asheni’ the term feminism can be used to describe a political, cultural or economic movement aimed at establishing equal rights and legal protection for women. Feminism involves political and sociological theories and philosophies concerned with issues of gender differences as well as a movement that advocates gender equality for women and campaigns for women’s rights and interests.     Kokhono Asheni is indeed a pleasure and a joy to behold. The acting by the cast are remarkable, the score and music is quite brilliant and Raihan’s first effort as a director is more than just commendable. It is a landmark film in the Bangladeshi film industry that not has an abundance of style but substance in galore with important messages in an important period in the history of the people of this land.     Watch the full movie 'Kokhono Asheni (1961) directed by Zahir Raihan here...
Khan Ataur Rahman and Sumita Devi in Kokhono Asheni (1961) Movie 

Above the economic structure rises the superstructure, consisting of legal and political ‘forms of social consciousness’ that correspond to the economic structure. Marx says nothing about the nature of this correspondence between ideological forms and economic structure, except that through the ideological forms individuals become conscious of the conflict within the economic structure between the material forces of production and the existing relations of production expressed in the legal property relations.

The Marxist way to deal with culture alludes to the analysis of writings and practices in connection to their recorded state of generation. As indicated by Marx, each critical time of history is built around a specific method of generation where every method of creation produces explicit social connections among laborers and the individuals who control the method of generation. The point of departure of human history is therefore living human beings, who seek to satisfy certain primary needs. The first historical fact is the production of the means to satisfy these needs. This satisfaction, in turn, opens the way for new needs. Human activity is thus essentially a struggle with nature that must furnish the means of satisfying human needs: drink, food, clothing, the development of human powers and then of human intellectual and artistic abilities. In this undertaking, people discover themselves as productive beings who humanize themselves through their labor.
The separation between the common laborers and the decision class is evident the framework. Regular workers is overwhelmed and abused by the decision class. Laborers are estranged from their item which causes them to acknowledge the strength of the decision class. What's more, this occurs as a chain over and over with the exception of any insurgency occurs. This procedure is just depicted in the film where we see the families coming in the structure and biting the dust over and over.

“Feminism is becoming an increasingly accepted part of ordinary social and political discourse, even if it is not viewed in the same light by everyone. Feminism is often represented in everyday discussions, as well as in lecture rooms, as a single entity and somehow concerned with equality.”

In this film ‘Kokhono Asheni’ the term feminism can be used to describe a political, cultural or economic movement aimed at establishing equal rights and legal protection for women. Feminism involves political and sociological theories and philosophies concerned with issues of gender differences as well as a movement that advocates gender equality for women and campaigns for women’s rights and interests. 

Kokhono Asheni is indeed a pleasure and a joy to behold. The acting by the cast are remarkable, the score and music is quite brilliant and Raihan’s first effort as a director is more than just commendable. It is a landmark film in the Bangladeshi film industry that not has an abundance of style but substance in galore with important messages in an important period in the history of the people of this land. 

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