Thursday, July 11, 2019

Symbolism, Power and Nationalism in Jibon Theke Neya (1970)


Symbolism, Power and Nationalism in Jibon Theke Neya (1970)
Md. Robiul Islam
Abstract: This is a critical film review of the film Jibon Theke Neya (1970) directed by Zahir Raihan. The review will help to understand the metaphorical meaning of the film. This review argues that the symbolic characterization of the film indicates the power and nationalism for an independent country ‘Bangladesh’. This analysis employs semiotic cinema theory and post colonial theory as the approaches to establish the argument.
 
Symbolism, Power and Nationalism in Jibon Theke Neya (1970)  Md. Robiul Islam  Abstract: This is a critical film review of the film Jibon Theke Neya (1970) directed by Zahir Raihan. The review will help to understand the metaphorical meaning of the film. This review argues that the symbolic characterization of the film indicates the power and nationalism for an independent country ‘Bangladesh’. This analysis employs semiotic cinema theory and post colonial theory as the approaches to establish the argument.     Key Words: Symbolism, Power, Nationalism  “Your wife is a great politician, she has done this to get the bunch of keys”….                                                                                                                          ____ Marriage-broker  “Keep in mind, it’s my house. I will do what is needed to keep in hand the bunch of keys”…                                                                                                                             ____Lady Dictator  “Modhu, this soil is mine this soil belongs to my land, Modhu. You, I and all others were born on this soil (….) we live on this soil, and this soil is so adorable like my mother, so sacred. I don’t want this golden soil of my golden land to be tarnished that is why I always speak about my country, about soil of my land.”                                                                                                                            ____Anwar Hossain        Jibon Theke Neya (1970) is a political satire based on the Bengali Language Movement under the rule of Pakistan. Metaphorically and symbolically power and nationalism have been expressed in this cinema. Director Zahir Raihan has characterized it through an autocratic woman (Rawshan Jamil) of a family who is the political dictator and symbolizes of Ayub Khan in East Pakistan. On the other hand others have been characterized as protesting characters. Nationalism is expressed through their speech and activities.     From Previous Literature:  There are no international journals or articles about Jibon Theke Neya (1970). But few notable works about this film has been done. For example; Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bangladesh publishes an article about the film titled “Jibon Thekey Neya (Glimpses of Life, 1970): The First Political Film in Pre-Liberation Bangladesh and A cinematic metaphor for nationalist concerns” by Fahmida Akhter, Assistant Professor, Department of Drama and Dramatics, Jahangirnagar University. [Vol. 59(2), 2014, pp.291-303] But there is no inner connotation meaning or indefinite argument of the article. She only writes about the explanation of the cinema and some codes of cinema that are used in the film that indicates the nationality and Bengali’s cultural program codes. Besides, the Daily Star reports about it titled ‘Zahir Raihan and the making of Jibon Thekey Neya’ by Naznin Tithi. [19 August, 2017]  She only writes about the film making, releasing, and censor board and cinema explanation a few. The Daily Asian Age reports about it as titled ‘Jibon Theke Neya: Cinema that reflects life’ [6 November, 2017]. But it explains a short introduction of the cinema only. Daily Observer writes about it as titled ‘Jibon Theke Neya, an emblem of political satire’ by Afsana Aziz Nitol [23 March, 2017]. Here the film has been explained on the perspective of metaphor and about nationalism .The Daily Prothom Alo writes about it as titled ‘Jibon Theke Neya’, an exposure of authority’ by Farzana Liakat [25 March, 219]. This article expresses some inner explanation of the cinema and about the release of the film. It also discusses about the nationality and this kind of political film is very tough to be released under colonial regime.     Theoretical Framework:  This study employs semiotic cinema theory and pos colonial approaches to understand the metaphorical characterization and the metaphorical development of the film. It will help to understand how the symbolism, power and nationalism have been expressed metaphorically. To study the film, Ferdinand de Saussure’s semiotics, Metz and Peter Wollen’s theory, Daniel Chandler’s theory and post colonial cinema theory will be used to understand it.     The Key Ring and Symbolism:  In Jibon Theke Neya (1970), there are many important signs have been used to express the film as metaphorical film. The key ring is one of them. The matchmaker in the film tells that the key ring is the power of dictator lady. Thus her husband can know that if the key ring is transferred from one hand to another, tow will rule in the household and the dictatorship will be vanished. So, here the key ring is the main symbol in the film and it is used as metaphorically in the film. It is the main power of the household. Besides, there are other symbols that have been used also metaphorically. For example; a glass with poison that expresses conspiracy, a bell metal bowl and plate with changing sound express tyrannical activities and a jumping koi fish expresses life without water under the dictator’s rule. Besides, there are some alphabetical sings have been used in the film. Different kinds of posters, writings, ‘Ekhushe February in Bengali language (21st February), Shahid Minar (Martyred Monument), flower, bare feet, new born baby ‘Mukti’ of Faruk and Bithi that expresses a new hope and many have been used here. According to Ferdinand de Saussure sign is the total of signifier and signified. Here signifiers are image of these symbols and sound on the other hand signified is the concept that comes in mind hearing the sign. All the different signs have their own connotative meaning. We will discuss it later. Christian Metz and Peter Wollen used the concept of semiotics to study cinema. They argue that ‘shots are the signs in cinema. This is called short circuit sign because the signifier and the signified are almost identical in cinema sign (shot).’ In the film Jibon Theke Neya (1970) all the symbols are identical. They always express something metaphorical meaning. We see the first shot of the film where Anwar Hossain writes ‘Ekhushe February’ (21st February) on a poster that is also identical. It expresses Bengali language speaking people. It is also an important symbol in the film. But the key ring is the main symbol to identify the connotative meaning. Christian Metz said that it is not because cinema is language that it can such fine stories, but rather it has become language it has told such fine stories.[Metz, Film Language, p.47]. Zahir Raihan’s cinematic styles is less important that its message because it has a fine story. It expresses Bengali nationalism with the above signs. Films manage to communicate meaning in two different manners. One denotative meaning and the other is connotative meaning. In the film there exist the two meanings. In denotative meaning, we see the image, hear the sound and easily know the signs of the cinema. But in connotative meaning, we have to explore the implicit meaning of the signs. Connotative meaning expresses the metaphorical meaning of the signs. Thus the film expresses the metaphorical meaning with the help of connotative meaning of the signs. In semiotics theory connotative meaning has two axes for example, Paradigmatic connotation and Syntagmatic connotation. We will analyze the whole film with an important symbol for example key ring. It is the paradigmatic connotation and how to present it is syntagmatic connotation. Cinematic signs have three kinds of orders that Peter Wollen suggested in his book ‘Signs and meaning in the cinema (1969). Jibon Theke Neya film covers all the orders here for example icon, index and symbol. We discuss about the posters as icon of the film and Amor Ekushe (Immortal Twenty First), Alponas (geometric flowery design), Krishnachura trees and Shahid Minar (Martyred Monument) are the index of the film that have directly relationship with Bengali Language Movement, in 1952. Women wearing Shakhas indicates the conventional symbol in the film. This indicates Hindu religion in the film. The Hindus and Muslims go to martyred monument to with flowers to respect them on bare feet. We also can know the psychological condition of a man or woman. We can know the hotness and coolness by index and symbol. We can guess the psychological state of the hot tempered dictator lady by index and symbol. On the other hand the positive state or cool mind state is revealed of two sisters and two brothers. So, index in cinema is very important to understand the relationship of coolness and hotness of human psychological state. Daniel Chanlder (2001) in his book ‘Semiotics the Basics’ said that codes organize signs into meaningful systems which correlate signifiers and signifies through the structural forms of syntagms and paradigms. Stuart Hall said that there is no intelligible discourse without the operation of codes. Actually three kinds of codes are used in cinema. In Jibon Theke Neya movie, the codes are used precisely. Now we will find the metaphorical meaning through the codes and also know the types of codes. Social codes are divided into several types of codes. For example, verbal codes, bodily codes, commodity codes, behavioral codes. In verbal codes, we see only the dictator lady speaks about her power and wants to dominate all time. The dominated member of the family cannot talk about their rights. In bodily codes, for example, lady’s husband tells his brother in-law shoutedly about Shathi so that Lady cannot know the bodily expression from other room that,  ‘Deadly, deadly, women are deadly’.  But he silently and bodily tells his brother-in-law that,  ‘You don’t listen to my words’  We can know the fashions, clothes of Anisur Rahman a lawyer, Faruk, Bithi students, the matchmaker, police, Anwar Hossain, the dictator lady and all others. We also see the cars when Anwar Hossain goes to jail and newly married Shathi goes to her husband’s house with different cars at the same time. These commodity codes express the melodramatic scenes. In the second stage, the use of painting, romanticism between Faruk and Bithi on the other hand Anisur and Shathi, the realism of slogan and meeting and protests are all of textual codes. The posters (Textual codes) are also expressing the revolutionary state. The last stage, interpretative codes are perceptual and ideological codes. We can know the perception of human psychology through perceptual codes for example, the character’s ear, eye, nose and lips. What they hear and what they listen. In the film the dictator lady only speaks and the other members cannot speak only they hear through their ears and see through their eyes. Through ideological codes, we can understand and think any kind of ism or ideology for example on the perspective of this film; racism, socialism, nationalism and power. The ideology of this kind of subject comes to our mind and can know that kind of ideas.  Power in Jibon Theke Neya:  You have a lot of power. But you cannot take it for a life time if you are tyrannical. Jibon Theke Neya is a political film that expresses Bengali nationalism. This film delivers two kinds of statements one is inside the house and other outside the house; domestic and public. The women are struggling inside the house to take over the power and the men are struggling for their rights, their democracy, independence and freedom. So, there are revolutionary activities inside the house and in the public at large meaning. Zahir Raihan makes its ending through two family’s activities. In one side, Anwar Hossaain and his sisters are protesting characters. On the other hand the dictator woman’s house, the members are silent and oppressed members. But in the last stage we see all the members are protesting characters except the dictator lady. No one can tolerate the oppression of the autocratic lady’s rule in the house. So, the two brothers get married so that the key ring is transferred and peace comes to their house. But desire of power is eternal to the dictator lady. So, she conspired to kill her sister-in-law to get the power. We can understand her oppression and abuse of power through her dialogues.     Woman:   Where have you been in so early in the morning like a thief on bare feet?  Faruk:      As today is the 21st February, I went to a Provat Feri.  Woman:   21st February? What type of thing is this?  Faruk:       Don’t you really know what is 21st February?  Woman:   I don’t need to know. It seems like a barbarian you danced on bare feet on the whole                      street, didn’t you? Listen, knowing that these of thing I can’t tolerate why did you go                     there? Remember, if you go again there, I’ll close down your study!     This is one kind of proof that how a sister behaves with her brother. And she does not know what 21st February is. Only a dictator can speak in such a way. Actually, she symbolizes the political dictator ruler of then East Pakistan Ayub Khan. The lady’s characterization has been expressed based on the West Pakistani military dictatorship of Ayub Khan from 1958 to 1969. The dictator lady’s character will be displayed through anther her dominated activities on her servants. The male servant Keramot has spent much oil. So,     Woman:             The price of milk and oil is being cut off from your salary.  Woman:             who has taken this glass here? Haven’t I told hundredth days no one will bring                              this glass from my home, if you touch it any more, I told, I will cut off your                               hand.  Not only this but also she does not stay behind oppressing her husband when he sings on the roof. He cannot sing song inside the house for her wife’s oppression.     Woman:              Noh, after breaking the tabla and harmonium a lot of times, cannot you                               understand that singing in this household is forbidden?  Woman:                Ah ha ha ha! What my truthful husband! When you get obstacle telling a lie,                                 you don’t feel shy eating my brother’s earning sitting in this house? When my                                 brother is an advocate, you rather can do clerkship of him. Either you will do                                 clerkship from tomorrow neither the whole day will stand for clients under                                   the banyan tree. You cannot sing.  Dictator Lady’s brother Anisur Rahman earns well at the advocacy profession. But he is not also free from her oppression. He starts smoking inside the room.     Woman:                What is the matter at last you are starting smoking? Today smoking, tomorrow                                 wine another day perhaps will see card chat. Did I spoil these years                                 behind you for this? As if I do not see smoking from tomorrow.     The family members cannot speak against her. If anyone does that, the dictator lady shows her power upon them. In the film once her husband affixes the poster over the wall of the house and all the members have to tolerate her oppression. ‘No autocracy’, ‘have to give singing right’, ‘must have to give husband’s right’ these points are written on the poster.   Woman:               Keramot, Anis, Faruk, what are these? Who has affixed them? Who? Who?                             How dare he? Who has affixed them? Why doesn’t reply? I gave an hour over                             whose walls the posters are affixed will be cleared through water. Otherwise,                             your rice, breakfast and entering into this house will be closed down from today.       For taking ruling power of the house the dictator lady can do everything. She always gets fear that when her ruling power is transferring. So, she was not agreed to make marry to her brother at the first time. But when her brothers by force marry to take ruling power (the key ring) over new bride, she is bound to give the power over her. But at first she does not let the new married husband wife to unite at their room.     Woman:              That is not good don’t I understand? If I let her to unite with him today, from                                   tomorrow laughing will be started, from the next day house’s matter will be                               come out, then will see taking the key ring of this household from me will tied                                 up at the fringe of his wife. Remember, it’s my house. I must do what is                               needed to keep in hand the key ring.  In Jibon theke Neya cinema, Zahir Raihan has given the total power upon the autocratic lady. So, the family members or anyone do not get power to speak against her. But a new hope is kept in nationalism chapter where the women members struggle inside the house and men members outside the house. We discuss it in the nationalism part.  Nationalism in Jibon Theke Neya:  The main hero of nationalism in the film is Anwar Hossain. Besides, Faruk, dictator woman’s husband (Khan Ataur Rahman), Modhu are the other protesting characters in the film. Never power is stayed to an autocratic person for the whole time. Its religion is changing or transferring. Either the ruler is autocratic or democratic he/she must leave the position. In the film Zahir Raihan upholds the autocratic woman as the character of the then Pakistani military dictator Ayub Khan. This film is directed inspired from Bangle Language Movement occurred in 1952. Bengali people have tolerated many oppression of the autocratic ruler Ayub Khan. And the film is the ardent proof. Bengali people never forget that kinds of oppression. Now we will discuss nationalism with the help of post colonial theory. As in 1970, Bangladesh was a colony of West Pakistan, it was then under colonialism. Indian subcontinent was under colonialism of Britain. But Indian subcontinent is divided between India and Pakistan in 1947. India becomes independent. But still Bangladesh was under Pakistan. It was a province and the West Pakistan started its oppression over East Pakistan (Now Bangladesh) through economically, politically, socially, culturally and religiously. West Pakistan deprived East Pakistan from every important sector. This film is the flaming proof of it. Now we will try to explain nationalism in Jibon Theke Neya through post colonial theory. Shome says that this is not a theory but an approach to understand the context of colonialism (2002).It explores colonial condition to critique it to explain why and how colonialism takes place and resistance to colonialism. Orientalism discusses about how the West creates a myth about the East, they defined they are superior they also think that the East is exotic, seductive, barbaric, criminal, dangerous.[Orientaism (1978) by Edward said] In the film West Pakistan thinks East Pakistan similarly. The autocratic lady’s activities are the example of it. For, she symbolizes the dictator ruler Ayub Khan of West Pakistan. Post colonialism sees race, class, gender sexuality and nationality within geopolitical arrangements and national or international histories. It also deals with the problematic which are no boundered by national border. In the film the protesting activities of the protesting characters are limited within the border. The whole world does not watch the oppressive activities of West Pakistan. In 1971, many countries also were against the independence of Bangladesh and they supported Pakistan. But one thing is very important in colonialism that is knowledge or education. Decolonization saw an influx of intelligentsia into institutions of higher education or knowledge in the United States and Britain. When most of the countries are decolonized from the colonialism, the other colonized people saw it and the earned higher education and knowledge helped them to understand about the oppression of colonizers and they wanted decolonization or freedom. The same condition was in Bangladesh. The higher educational people could understand and lifted about their rights and freedom. That is also noticeable in the film. The protesting characters specially, Anwar Hossain is a higher educated person. Faruk and Bithi are the Dhaka University students. Not only that the woman’s husband (Khan Ataur Rahman) and Anisur rahman are also higher educated persons. They easily can know about the oppression of the autocratic lady. So, they want freedom and rights. Post colonial theory discusses about nationality and national identity, deterritorializations of colonial and national power. We see the both colonial and national power in the film. But colonial power is ended up and national power is seen as a hope for living. Jibon Theke Neya (1970) is a third cinema. The main characteristics of third cinema are they are revolutionary cinema that would focus on the masses and express their political goals through innovative cinematic forms. Here message is more important than cinematic technique. Calcutta 71 (1971) directed by Mrinal Sen is also a third cinema. All the characteristics are remaining in the cinema. In post colonial cinema, can colonized people speak? No. they cannot speak against colonizers. But after that we see nationalism. Colonial power and nationalism go in the parallel way. In one side we see colonial power and on the other side we see national power and colonial power is defeated by national power. National power is very strong.  Anwar Hossain:             What I have got and what I have given if I calculate this, I cannot love                                         country. You must love country selflessly. Who are busy with debt and                                         due, are destroying.  In colonized country poverty is seen everywhere as the colonizers deprive colonized people from everything food, clothes and basics needs.  Anwar:                  Why don’t you understand, Modhu, that it is our life? Where the life is tired                               struggling with poverty, thinking the issue of marriage is wrong.     One day in this Bengal there were rice fulfilled in the granary, fishes in the ponds and the golden land were fulfilled with golden crops. But now they are struggling with poverty. The domestic and public struggling against autocracy is prevailing in the parallel way. When the country is filled with a lot of problems, the house is also facing with problems.     Khan Ataur Rahman:    Brother, I want to know a word means wn advice.  Anwar Hoassin:             What?  Khan Ataur Rahman:    It means, you do movement being injustice and oppression. You do                                          meeting, protest, affix posters. But suppose, if oppression and injustice                                         are at home, what should do there?  Anwar Hossain:             Country and house these are similar. Country is at large and house is in                                         small meaning. Like movement is needed against wrong and oppression                                        in country, you have to do movement inside the house.  When oppression is extreme upon a nation by colonizers, the nation finds its solution through nationalism. Nationalism is found through movement, affixing poster about basic needs being united with culture. They struggle for freedom, rights, independence.  Faruk:                        who said it is your household? It is ours.  Woman:                      what? What? How dare you? Get out from here.  Faruk:                         you will get out? Why will I go?  Woman:                     what? A large word in a tiny mouth?  Faruk:                         Careful, you won’t do that, what’s younger?  Huh, you are oppressing on                                      elder brother getting soft minded. But showing temper with me, there is                                    danger.  Faruk:                       you have ruled in this household for a long time, not more. From today,                                    sister-in-law will rule the household whom you have kept like servant.  Modhu is killed in the movement of ‘want rice, want clothes and want to live with rights’. Nationalism is expressed in the cinema at the beginning with the points ‘a country, a family, a key-ring, a movement, a film’. Many songs have been used to show unity in the film. O Amar Shwapno Jhora Akulkora Jonmovumi (Oh my dreamy motherland who made me devoted to her) song is started in the beginning of the film. Amor Ekushe (Immortal Twenty First), song of Provat Feri ‘Amar Bhaier Rokte Rangano Ekushe February Ami Ki Bhulite Pari?’ (Can I forget the Twenty First February incarnadined by the blood of my brothers?) have been used in the film as the symbol of nationalism. For the first time, Zahir Raihan has used the famous song by Rabindranath Tagore in the film to inspire the people about the independence of Bangladesh. ‘Amar Sonar Bangla, Ami Tomai Bhalobashi (My Bengal of gold, I love you) is used to show inspiration to the Bengalis. ‘Karar Oi Louho Kopat .. Bhenge Fel Korre Lopat’ song has been used to increase the race of movement. ‘Dao, Dao, Dao Duniar Joto Goribke Aj Jagie Dao’ rebellious song has been used to unite the people of different class, different religion and of different views. Nationalism among the Bengali people is increased day by day. They become conscious about their freedom and the independence of Bangladesh. The main target of the film was to inspire the people to increase their consciousness about independence. General Rao Farman Ali watches the film in a screening and told Zahir Raihan that ‘I will see you’. Pakistan government at first did not allow displaying the cinema among the mass people so that they can see it and become conscious about independence. But they were bound to release the movie by the pressure of mass people.     Conclusion:  In the conclusion, the film JIbon Theke Neya is directed inspiring of Bengali Language Movement. Benagli Language Movement is the one of the main symbols to raise nationalism among the people. Zahir Raihan directed this film to inspire the people of Bangladesh to become conscious about the independence of Bangladesh. So, he showed dare to direct this kind of third cinema under the colonized country. Like he has showed the injustice and oppression, he has showed the approaches to become independent from colonizers. He showed public problematic through a domestic point of view so that the mass people easily understand the film and get the main message of the film.  References  Jibon Theke Neya: Cinema that reflects life (2017). Daily Asian Age. Retrieved from  Afsana Aziz Nitol (2017), Jibon Theke Neya, an emblem of political satire. The Daily Observer.  Farjana Liakat (2019),  ‘Jibon Theke Neya', an exposure of authority. Prothom Alo.  Christian Metz (1974), Film Language. (P.47)  Peter Wollen (1969), Signs and Meaning in the Cinema.  Daniel Chandler (2001), Semiotics: The Basics.  Shome, R & Hedge, R (2002), Postcolonial approaches to communication: charting the terrain, engaging the intersections.  Sandra Ponzanesi, Marguerite Waller (2012), Postcolonial Cinema Studies.  Edward Said (1978), Orientalism.  Films Cited  Zahir Raihan (Director & Producer) Jibon Theke Neya (1970)  Mrinal Sen (Director) D. S. Pictures (Producer) Calcutta 71 (1971)
Anwar Hossain, Abdur Razzak and Shuchonda in Jibon Theke Neya (1970)
Key Words: Symbolism, Power, Nationalism
“Your wife is a great politician, she has done this to get the bunch of keys”….
                                                                                                                        ____ Marriage-broker
“Keep in mind, it’s my house. I will do what is needed to keep in hand the bunch of keys”…
                                                                                                                           ____Lady Dictator
“Modhu, this soil is mine this soil belongs to my land, Modhu. You, I and all others were born on this soil (….) we live on this soil, and this soil is so adorable like my mother, so sacred. I don’t want this golden soil of my golden land to be tarnished that is why I always speak about my country, about soil of my land.”
                                                                                                                          ____Anwar Hossain   

Jibon Theke Neya (1970) is a political satire based on the Bengali Language Movement under the rule of Pakistan. Metaphorically and symbolically power and nationalism have been expressed in this cinema. Director Zahir Raihan has characterized it through an autocratic woman (Rawshan Jamil) of a family who is the political dictator and symbolizes of Ayub Khan in East Pakistan. On the other hand others have been characterized as protesting characters. Nationalism is expressed through their speech and activities.

 
Symbolism, Power and Nationalism in Jibon Theke Neya (1970)  Md. Robiul Islam  Abstract: This is a critical film review of the film Jibon Theke Neya (1970) directed by Zahir Raihan. The review will help to understand the metaphorical meaning of the film. This review argues that the symbolic characterization of the film indicates the power and nationalism for an independent country ‘Bangladesh’. This analysis employs semiotic cinema theory and post colonial theory as the approaches to establish the argument.     Key Words: Symbolism, Power, Nationalism  “Your wife is a great politician, she has done this to get the bunch of keys”….                                                                                                                          ____ Marriage-broker  “Keep in mind, it’s my house. I will do what is needed to keep in hand the bunch of keys”…                                                                                                                             ____Lady Dictator  “Modhu, this soil is mine this soil belongs to my land, Modhu. You, I and all others were born on this soil (….) we live on this soil, and this soil is so adorable like my mother, so sacred. I don’t want this golden soil of my golden land to be tarnished that is why I always speak about my country, about soil of my land.”                                                                                                                            ____Anwar Hossain        Jibon Theke Neya (1970) is a political satire based on the Bengali Language Movement under the rule of Pakistan. Metaphorically and symbolically power and nationalism have been expressed in this cinema. Director Zahir Raihan has characterized it through an autocratic woman (Rawshan Jamil) of a family who is the political dictator and symbolizes of Ayub Khan in East Pakistan. On the other hand others have been characterized as protesting characters. Nationalism is expressed through their speech and activities.     From Previous Literature:  There are no international journals or articles about Jibon Theke Neya (1970). But few notable works about this film has been done. For example; Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bangladesh publishes an article about the film titled “Jibon Thekey Neya (Glimpses of Life, 1970): The First Political Film in Pre-Liberation Bangladesh and A cinematic metaphor for nationalist concerns” by Fahmida Akhter, Assistant Professor, Department of Drama and Dramatics, Jahangirnagar University. [Vol. 59(2), 2014, pp.291-303] But there is no inner connotation meaning or indefinite argument of the article. She only writes about the explanation of the cinema and some codes of cinema that are used in the film that indicates the nationality and Bengali’s cultural program codes. Besides, the Daily Star reports about it titled ‘Zahir Raihan and the making of Jibon Thekey Neya’ by Naznin Tithi. [19 August, 2017]  She only writes about the film making, releasing, and censor board and cinema explanation a few. The Daily Asian Age reports about it as titled ‘Jibon Theke Neya: Cinema that reflects life’ [6 November, 2017]. But it explains a short introduction of the cinema only. Daily Observer writes about it as titled ‘Jibon Theke Neya, an emblem of political satire’ by Afsana Aziz Nitol [23 March, 2017]. Here the film has been explained on the perspective of metaphor and about nationalism .The Daily Prothom Alo writes about it as titled ‘Jibon Theke Neya’, an exposure of authority’ by Farzana Liakat [25 March, 219]. This article expresses some inner explanation of the cinema and about the release of the film. It also discusses about the nationality and this kind of political film is very tough to be released under colonial regime.     Theoretical Framework:  This study employs semiotic cinema theory and pos colonial approaches to understand the metaphorical characterization and the metaphorical development of the film. It will help to understand how the symbolism, power and nationalism have been expressed metaphorically. To study the film, Ferdinand de Saussure’s semiotics, Metz and Peter Wollen’s theory, Daniel Chandler’s theory and post colonial cinema theory will be used to understand it.     The Key Ring and Symbolism:  In Jibon Theke Neya (1970), there are many important signs have been used to express the film as metaphorical film. The key ring is one of them. The matchmaker in the film tells that the key ring is the power of dictator lady. Thus her husband can know that if the key ring is transferred from one hand to another, tow will rule in the household and the dictatorship will be vanished. So, here the key ring is the main symbol in the film and it is used as metaphorically in the film. It is the main power of the household. Besides, there are other symbols that have been used also metaphorically. For example; a glass with poison that expresses conspiracy, a bell metal bowl and plate with changing sound express tyrannical activities and a jumping koi fish expresses life without water under the dictator’s rule. Besides, there are some alphabetical sings have been used in the film. Different kinds of posters, writings, ‘Ekhushe February in Bengali language (21st February), Shahid Minar (Martyred Monument), flower, bare feet, new born baby ‘Mukti’ of Faruk and Bithi that expresses a new hope and many have been used here. According to Ferdinand de Saussure sign is the total of signifier and signified. Here signifiers are image of these symbols and sound on the other hand signified is the concept that comes in mind hearing the sign. All the different signs have their own connotative meaning. We will discuss it later. Christian Metz and Peter Wollen used the concept of semiotics to study cinema. They argue that ‘shots are the signs in cinema. This is called short circuit sign because the signifier and the signified are almost identical in cinema sign (shot).’ In the film Jibon Theke Neya (1970) all the symbols are identical. They always express something metaphorical meaning. We see the first shot of the film where Anwar Hossain writes ‘Ekhushe February’ (21st February) on a poster that is also identical. It expresses Bengali language speaking people. It is also an important symbol in the film. But the key ring is the main symbol to identify the connotative meaning. Christian Metz said that it is not because cinema is language that it can such fine stories, but rather it has become language it has told such fine stories.[Metz, Film Language, p.47]. Zahir Raihan’s cinematic styles is less important that its message because it has a fine story. It expresses Bengali nationalism with the above signs. Films manage to communicate meaning in two different manners. One denotative meaning and the other is connotative meaning. In the film there exist the two meanings. In denotative meaning, we see the image, hear the sound and easily know the signs of the cinema. But in connotative meaning, we have to explore the implicit meaning of the signs. Connotative meaning expresses the metaphorical meaning of the signs. Thus the film expresses the metaphorical meaning with the help of connotative meaning of the signs. In semiotics theory connotative meaning has two axes for example, Paradigmatic connotation and Syntagmatic connotation. We will analyze the whole film with an important symbol for example key ring. It is the paradigmatic connotation and how to present it is syntagmatic connotation. Cinematic signs have three kinds of orders that Peter Wollen suggested in his book ‘Signs and meaning in the cinema (1969). Jibon Theke Neya film covers all the orders here for example icon, index and symbol. We discuss about the posters as icon of the film and Amor Ekushe (Immortal Twenty First), Alponas (geometric flowery design), Krishnachura trees and Shahid Minar (Martyred Monument) are the index of the film that have directly relationship with Bengali Language Movement, in 1952. Women wearing Shakhas indicates the conventional symbol in the film. This indicates Hindu religion in the film. The Hindus and Muslims go to martyred monument to with flowers to respect them on bare feet. We also can know the psychological condition of a man or woman. We can know the hotness and coolness by index and symbol. We can guess the psychological state of the hot tempered dictator lady by index and symbol. On the other hand the positive state or cool mind state is revealed of two sisters and two brothers. So, index in cinema is very important to understand the relationship of coolness and hotness of human psychological state. Daniel Chanlder (2001) in his book ‘Semiotics the Basics’ said that codes organize signs into meaningful systems which correlate signifiers and signifies through the structural forms of syntagms and paradigms. Stuart Hall said that there is no intelligible discourse without the operation of codes. Actually three kinds of codes are used in cinema. In Jibon Theke Neya movie, the codes are used precisely. Now we will find the metaphorical meaning through the codes and also know the types of codes. Social codes are divided into several types of codes. For example, verbal codes, bodily codes, commodity codes, behavioral codes. In verbal codes, we see only the dictator lady speaks about her power and wants to dominate all time. The dominated member of the family cannot talk about their rights. In bodily codes, for example, lady’s husband tells his brother in-law shoutedly about Shathi so that Lady cannot know the bodily expression from other room that,  ‘Deadly, deadly, women are deadly’.  But he silently and bodily tells his brother-in-law that,  ‘You don’t listen to my words’  We can know the fashions, clothes of Anisur Rahman a lawyer, Faruk, Bithi students, the matchmaker, police, Anwar Hossain, the dictator lady and all others. We also see the cars when Anwar Hossain goes to jail and newly married Shathi goes to her husband’s house with different cars at the same time. These commodity codes express the melodramatic scenes. In the second stage, the use of painting, romanticism between Faruk and Bithi on the other hand Anisur and Shathi, the realism of slogan and meeting and protests are all of textual codes. The posters (Textual codes) are also expressing the revolutionary state. The last stage, interpretative codes are perceptual and ideological codes. We can know the perception of human psychology through perceptual codes for example, the character’s ear, eye, nose and lips. What they hear and what they listen. In the film the dictator lady only speaks and the other members cannot speak only they hear through their ears and see through their eyes. Through ideological codes, we can understand and think any kind of ism or ideology for example on the perspective of this film; racism, socialism, nationalism and power. The ideology of this kind of subject comes to our mind and can know that kind of ideas.  Power in Jibon Theke Neya:  You have a lot of power. But you cannot take it for a life time if you are tyrannical. Jibon Theke Neya is a political film that expresses Bengali nationalism. This film delivers two kinds of statements one is inside the house and other outside the house; domestic and public. The women are struggling inside the house to take over the power and the men are struggling for their rights, their democracy, independence and freedom. So, there are revolutionary activities inside the house and in the public at large meaning. Zahir Raihan makes its ending through two family’s activities. In one side, Anwar Hossaain and his sisters are protesting characters. On the other hand the dictator woman’s house, the members are silent and oppressed members. But in the last stage we see all the members are protesting characters except the dictator lady. No one can tolerate the oppression of the autocratic lady’s rule in the house. So, the two brothers get married so that the key ring is transferred and peace comes to their house. But desire of power is eternal to the dictator lady. So, she conspired to kill her sister-in-law to get the power. We can understand her oppression and abuse of power through her dialogues.     Woman:   Where have you been in so early in the morning like a thief on bare feet?  Faruk:      As today is the 21st February, I went to a Provat Feri.  Woman:   21st February? What type of thing is this?  Faruk:       Don’t you really know what is 21st February?  Woman:   I don’t need to know. It seems like a barbarian you danced on bare feet on the whole                      street, didn’t you? Listen, knowing that these of thing I can’t tolerate why did you go                     there? Remember, if you go again there, I’ll close down your study!     This is one kind of proof that how a sister behaves with her brother. And she does not know what 21st February is. Only a dictator can speak in such a way. Actually, she symbolizes the political dictator ruler of then East Pakistan Ayub Khan. The lady’s characterization has been expressed based on the West Pakistani military dictatorship of Ayub Khan from 1958 to 1969. The dictator lady’s character will be displayed through anther her dominated activities on her servants. The male servant Keramot has spent much oil. So,     Woman:             The price of milk and oil is being cut off from your salary.  Woman:             who has taken this glass here? Haven’t I told hundredth days no one will bring                              this glass from my home, if you touch it any more, I told, I will cut off your                               hand.  Not only this but also she does not stay behind oppressing her husband when he sings on the roof. He cannot sing song inside the house for her wife’s oppression.     Woman:              Noh, after breaking the tabla and harmonium a lot of times, cannot you                               understand that singing in this household is forbidden?  Woman:                Ah ha ha ha! What my truthful husband! When you get obstacle telling a lie,                                 you don’t feel shy eating my brother’s earning sitting in this house? When my                                 brother is an advocate, you rather can do clerkship of him. Either you will do                                 clerkship from tomorrow neither the whole day will stand for clients under                                   the banyan tree. You cannot sing.  Dictator Lady’s brother Anisur Rahman earns well at the advocacy profession. But he is not also free from her oppression. He starts smoking inside the room.     Woman:                What is the matter at last you are starting smoking? Today smoking, tomorrow                                 wine another day perhaps will see card chat. Did I spoil these years                                 behind you for this? As if I do not see smoking from tomorrow.     The family members cannot speak against her. If anyone does that, the dictator lady shows her power upon them. In the film once her husband affixes the poster over the wall of the house and all the members have to tolerate her oppression. ‘No autocracy’, ‘have to give singing right’, ‘must have to give husband’s right’ these points are written on the poster.   Woman:               Keramot, Anis, Faruk, what are these? Who has affixed them? Who? Who?                             How dare he? Who has affixed them? Why doesn’t reply? I gave an hour over                             whose walls the posters are affixed will be cleared through water. Otherwise,                             your rice, breakfast and entering into this house will be closed down from today.       For taking ruling power of the house the dictator lady can do everything. She always gets fear that when her ruling power is transferring. So, she was not agreed to make marry to her brother at the first time. But when her brothers by force marry to take ruling power (the key ring) over new bride, she is bound to give the power over her. But at first she does not let the new married husband wife to unite at their room.     Woman:              That is not good don’t I understand? If I let her to unite with him today, from                                   tomorrow laughing will be started, from the next day house’s matter will be                               come out, then will see taking the key ring of this household from me will tied                                 up at the fringe of his wife. Remember, it’s my house. I must do what is                               needed to keep in hand the key ring.  In Jibon theke Neya cinema, Zahir Raihan has given the total power upon the autocratic lady. So, the family members or anyone do not get power to speak against her. But a new hope is kept in nationalism chapter where the women members struggle inside the house and men members outside the house. We discuss it in the nationalism part.  Nationalism in Jibon Theke Neya:  The main hero of nationalism in the film is Anwar Hossain. Besides, Faruk, dictator woman’s husband (Khan Ataur Rahman), Modhu are the other protesting characters in the film. Never power is stayed to an autocratic person for the whole time. Its religion is changing or transferring. Either the ruler is autocratic or democratic he/she must leave the position. In the film Zahir Raihan upholds the autocratic woman as the character of the then Pakistani military dictator Ayub Khan. This film is directed inspired from Bangle Language Movement occurred in 1952. Bengali people have tolerated many oppression of the autocratic ruler Ayub Khan. And the film is the ardent proof. Bengali people never forget that kinds of oppression. Now we will discuss nationalism with the help of post colonial theory. As in 1970, Bangladesh was a colony of West Pakistan, it was then under colonialism. Indian subcontinent was under colonialism of Britain. But Indian subcontinent is divided between India and Pakistan in 1947. India becomes independent. But still Bangladesh was under Pakistan. It was a province and the West Pakistan started its oppression over East Pakistan (Now Bangladesh) through economically, politically, socially, culturally and religiously. West Pakistan deprived East Pakistan from every important sector. This film is the flaming proof of it. Now we will try to explain nationalism in Jibon Theke Neya through post colonial theory. Shome says that this is not a theory but an approach to understand the context of colonialism (2002).It explores colonial condition to critique it to explain why and how colonialism takes place and resistance to colonialism. Orientalism discusses about how the West creates a myth about the East, they defined they are superior they also think that the East is exotic, seductive, barbaric, criminal, dangerous.[Orientaism (1978) by Edward said] In the film West Pakistan thinks East Pakistan similarly. The autocratic lady’s activities are the example of it. For, she symbolizes the dictator ruler Ayub Khan of West Pakistan. Post colonialism sees race, class, gender sexuality and nationality within geopolitical arrangements and national or international histories. It also deals with the problematic which are no boundered by national border. In the film the protesting activities of the protesting characters are limited within the border. The whole world does not watch the oppressive activities of West Pakistan. In 1971, many countries also were against the independence of Bangladesh and they supported Pakistan. But one thing is very important in colonialism that is knowledge or education. Decolonization saw an influx of intelligentsia into institutions of higher education or knowledge in the United States and Britain. When most of the countries are decolonized from the colonialism, the other colonized people saw it and the earned higher education and knowledge helped them to understand about the oppression of colonizers and they wanted decolonization or freedom. The same condition was in Bangladesh. The higher educational people could understand and lifted about their rights and freedom. That is also noticeable in the film. The protesting characters specially, Anwar Hossain is a higher educated person. Faruk and Bithi are the Dhaka University students. Not only that the woman’s husband (Khan Ataur Rahman) and Anisur rahman are also higher educated persons. They easily can know about the oppression of the autocratic lady. So, they want freedom and rights. Post colonial theory discusses about nationality and national identity, deterritorializations of colonial and national power. We see the both colonial and national power in the film. But colonial power is ended up and national power is seen as a hope for living. Jibon Theke Neya (1970) is a third cinema. The main characteristics of third cinema are they are revolutionary cinema that would focus on the masses and express their political goals through innovative cinematic forms. Here message is more important than cinematic technique. Calcutta 71 (1971) directed by Mrinal Sen is also a third cinema. All the characteristics are remaining in the cinema. In post colonial cinema, can colonized people speak? No. they cannot speak against colonizers. But after that we see nationalism. Colonial power and nationalism go in the parallel way. In one side we see colonial power and on the other side we see national power and colonial power is defeated by national power. National power is very strong.  Anwar Hossain:             What I have got and what I have given if I calculate this, I cannot love                                         country. You must love country selflessly. Who are busy with debt and                                         due, are destroying.  In colonized country poverty is seen everywhere as the colonizers deprive colonized people from everything food, clothes and basics needs.  Anwar:                  Why don’t you understand, Modhu, that it is our life? Where the life is tired                               struggling with poverty, thinking the issue of marriage is wrong.     One day in this Bengal there were rice fulfilled in the granary, fishes in the ponds and the golden land were fulfilled with golden crops. But now they are struggling with poverty. The domestic and public struggling against autocracy is prevailing in the parallel way. When the country is filled with a lot of problems, the house is also facing with problems.     Khan Ataur Rahman:    Brother, I want to know a word means wn advice.  Anwar Hoassin:             What?  Khan Ataur Rahman:    It means, you do movement being injustice and oppression. You do                                          meeting, protest, affix posters. But suppose, if oppression and injustice                                         are at home, what should do there?  Anwar Hossain:             Country and house these are similar. Country is at large and house is in                                         small meaning. Like movement is needed against wrong and oppression                                        in country, you have to do movement inside the house.  When oppression is extreme upon a nation by colonizers, the nation finds its solution through nationalism. Nationalism is found through movement, affixing poster about basic needs being united with culture. They struggle for freedom, rights, independence.  Faruk:                        who said it is your household? It is ours.  Woman:                      what? What? How dare you? Get out from here.  Faruk:                         you will get out? Why will I go?  Woman:                     what? A large word in a tiny mouth?  Faruk:                         Careful, you won’t do that, what’s younger?  Huh, you are oppressing on                                      elder brother getting soft minded. But showing temper with me, there is                                    danger.  Faruk:                       you have ruled in this household for a long time, not more. From today,                                    sister-in-law will rule the household whom you have kept like servant.  Modhu is killed in the movement of ‘want rice, want clothes and want to live with rights’. Nationalism is expressed in the cinema at the beginning with the points ‘a country, a family, a key-ring, a movement, a film’. Many songs have been used to show unity in the film. O Amar Shwapno Jhora Akulkora Jonmovumi (Oh my dreamy motherland who made me devoted to her) song is started in the beginning of the film. Amor Ekushe (Immortal Twenty First), song of Provat Feri ‘Amar Bhaier Rokte Rangano Ekushe February Ami Ki Bhulite Pari?’ (Can I forget the Twenty First February incarnadined by the blood of my brothers?) have been used in the film as the symbol of nationalism. For the first time, Zahir Raihan has used the famous song by Rabindranath Tagore in the film to inspire the people about the independence of Bangladesh. ‘Amar Sonar Bangla, Ami Tomai Bhalobashi (My Bengal of gold, I love you) is used to show inspiration to the Bengalis. ‘Karar Oi Louho Kopat .. Bhenge Fel Korre Lopat’ song has been used to increase the race of movement. ‘Dao, Dao, Dao Duniar Joto Goribke Aj Jagie Dao’ rebellious song has been used to unite the people of different class, different religion and of different views. Nationalism among the Bengali people is increased day by day. They become conscious about their freedom and the independence of Bangladesh. The main target of the film was to inspire the people to increase their consciousness about independence. General Rao Farman Ali watches the film in a screening and told Zahir Raihan that ‘I will see you’. Pakistan government at first did not allow displaying the cinema among the mass people so that they can see it and become conscious about independence. But they were bound to release the movie by the pressure of mass people.     Conclusion:  In the conclusion, the film JIbon Theke Neya is directed inspiring of Bengali Language Movement. Benagli Language Movement is the one of the main symbols to raise nationalism among the people. Zahir Raihan directed this film to inspire the people of Bangladesh to become conscious about the independence of Bangladesh. So, he showed dare to direct this kind of third cinema under the colonized country. Like he has showed the injustice and oppression, he has showed the approaches to become independent from colonizers. He showed public problematic through a domestic point of view so that the mass people easily understand the film and get the main message of the film.  References  Jibon Theke Neya: Cinema that reflects life (2017). Daily Asian Age. Retrieved from  Afsana Aziz Nitol (2017), Jibon Theke Neya, an emblem of political satire. The Daily Observer.  Farjana Liakat (2019),  ‘Jibon Theke Neya', an exposure of authority. Prothom Alo.  Christian Metz (1974), Film Language. (P.47)  Peter Wollen (1969), Signs and Meaning in the Cinema.  Daniel Chandler (2001), Semiotics: The Basics.  Shome, R & Hedge, R (2002), Postcolonial approaches to communication: charting the terrain, engaging the intersections.  Sandra Ponzanesi, Marguerite Waller (2012), Postcolonial Cinema Studies.  Edward Said (1978), Orientalism.  Films Cited  Zahir Raihan (Director & Producer) Jibon Theke Neya (1970)  Mrinal Sen (Director) D. S. Pictures (Producer) Calcutta 71 (1971)
News of releasing of Jibon Theke Neya (1970) Movie


From Previous Literature:
There are no international journals or articles about Jibon Theke Neya (1970). But few notable works about this film has been done. For example; Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bangladesh publishes an article about the film titled “Jibon Thekey Neya (Glimpses of Life, 1970): The First Political Film in Pre-Liberation Bangladesh and A cinematic metaphor for nationalist concerns” by Fahmida Akhter, Assistant Professor, Department of Drama and Dramatics, Jahangirnagar University. [Vol. 59(2), 2014, pp.291-303] But there is no inner connotation meaning or indefinite argument of the article. She only writes about the explanation of the cinema and some codes of cinema that are used in the film that indicates the nationality and Bengali’s cultural program codes. Besides, the Daily Star reports about it titled ‘Zahir Raihan and the making of Jibon Thekey Neya’ by Naznin Tithi. [19 August, 2017]  She only writes about the film making, releasing, and censor board and cinema explanation a few. The Daily Asian Age reports about it as titled ‘Jibon Theke Neya: Cinema that reflects life’ [6 November, 2017]. But it explains a short introduction of the cinema only. Daily Observer writes about it as titled ‘Jibon Theke Neya, an emblem of political satire’ by Afsana Aziz Nitol [23 March, 2017]. Here the film has been explained on the perspective of metaphor and about nationalism .The Daily Prothom Alo writes about it as titled ‘Jibon Theke Neya’, an exposure of authority’ by Farzana Liakat [25 March, 219]. This article expresses some inner explanation of the cinema and about the release of the film. It also discusses about the nationality and this kind of political film is very tough to be released under colonial regime.

Theoretical Framework:
This study employs semiotic cinema theory and pos colonial approaches to understand the metaphorical characterization and the metaphorical development of the film. It will help to understand how the symbolism, power and nationalism have been expressed metaphorically. To study the film, Ferdinand de Saussure’s semiotics, Metz and Peter Wollen’s theory, Daniel Chandler’s theory and post colonial cinema theory will be used to understand it.
 
Symbolism, Power and Nationalism in Jibon Theke Neya (1970)  Md. Robiul Islam  Abstract: This is a critical film review of the film Jibon Theke Neya (1970) directed by Zahir Raihan. The review will help to understand the metaphorical meaning of the film. This review argues that the symbolic characterization of the film indicates the power and nationalism for an independent country ‘Bangladesh’. This analysis employs semiotic cinema theory and post colonial theory as the approaches to establish the argument.     Key Words: Symbolism, Power, Nationalism  “Your wife is a great politician, she has done this to get the bunch of keys”….                                                                                                                          ____ Marriage-broker  “Keep in mind, it’s my house. I will do what is needed to keep in hand the bunch of keys”…                                                                                                                             ____Lady Dictator  “Modhu, this soil is mine this soil belongs to my land, Modhu. You, I and all others were born on this soil (….) we live on this soil, and this soil is so adorable like my mother, so sacred. I don’t want this golden soil of my golden land to be tarnished that is why I always speak about my country, about soil of my land.”                                                                                                                            ____Anwar Hossain        Jibon Theke Neya (1970) is a political satire based on the Bengali Language Movement under the rule of Pakistan. Metaphorically and symbolically power and nationalism have been expressed in this cinema. Director Zahir Raihan has characterized it through an autocratic woman (Rawshan Jamil) of a family who is the political dictator and symbolizes of Ayub Khan in East Pakistan. On the other hand others have been characterized as protesting characters. Nationalism is expressed through their speech and activities.     From Previous Literature:  There are no international journals or articles about Jibon Theke Neya (1970). But few notable works about this film has been done. For example; Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bangladesh publishes an article about the film titled “Jibon Thekey Neya (Glimpses of Life, 1970): The First Political Film in Pre-Liberation Bangladesh and A cinematic metaphor for nationalist concerns” by Fahmida Akhter, Assistant Professor, Department of Drama and Dramatics, Jahangirnagar University. [Vol. 59(2), 2014, pp.291-303] But there is no inner connotation meaning or indefinite argument of the article. She only writes about the explanation of the cinema and some codes of cinema that are used in the film that indicates the nationality and Bengali’s cultural program codes. Besides, the Daily Star reports about it titled ‘Zahir Raihan and the making of Jibon Thekey Neya’ by Naznin Tithi. [19 August, 2017]  She only writes about the film making, releasing, and censor board and cinema explanation a few. The Daily Asian Age reports about it as titled ‘Jibon Theke Neya: Cinema that reflects life’ [6 November, 2017]. But it explains a short introduction of the cinema only. Daily Observer writes about it as titled ‘Jibon Theke Neya, an emblem of political satire’ by Afsana Aziz Nitol [23 March, 2017]. Here the film has been explained on the perspective of metaphor and about nationalism .The Daily Prothom Alo writes about it as titled ‘Jibon Theke Neya’, an exposure of authority’ by Farzana Liakat [25 March, 219]. This article expresses some inner explanation of the cinema and about the release of the film. It also discusses about the nationality and this kind of political film is very tough to be released under colonial regime.     Theoretical Framework:  This study employs semiotic cinema theory and pos colonial approaches to understand the metaphorical characterization and the metaphorical development of the film. It will help to understand how the symbolism, power and nationalism have been expressed metaphorically. To study the film, Ferdinand de Saussure’s semiotics, Metz and Peter Wollen’s theory, Daniel Chandler’s theory and post colonial cinema theory will be used to understand it.     The Key Ring and Symbolism:  In Jibon Theke Neya (1970), there are many important signs have been used to express the film as metaphorical film. The key ring is one of them. The matchmaker in the film tells that the key ring is the power of dictator lady. Thus her husband can know that if the key ring is transferred from one hand to another, tow will rule in the household and the dictatorship will be vanished. So, here the key ring is the main symbol in the film and it is used as metaphorically in the film. It is the main power of the household. Besides, there are other symbols that have been used also metaphorically. For example; a glass with poison that expresses conspiracy, a bell metal bowl and plate with changing sound express tyrannical activities and a jumping koi fish expresses life without water under the dictator’s rule. Besides, there are some alphabetical sings have been used in the film. Different kinds of posters, writings, ‘Ekhushe February in Bengali language (21st February), Shahid Minar (Martyred Monument), flower, bare feet, new born baby ‘Mukti’ of Faruk and Bithi that expresses a new hope and many have been used here. According to Ferdinand de Saussure sign is the total of signifier and signified. Here signifiers are image of these symbols and sound on the other hand signified is the concept that comes in mind hearing the sign. All the different signs have their own connotative meaning. We will discuss it later. Christian Metz and Peter Wollen used the concept of semiotics to study cinema. They argue that ‘shots are the signs in cinema. This is called short circuit sign because the signifier and the signified are almost identical in cinema sign (shot).’ In the film Jibon Theke Neya (1970) all the symbols are identical. They always express something metaphorical meaning. We see the first shot of the film where Anwar Hossain writes ‘Ekhushe February’ (21st February) on a poster that is also identical. It expresses Bengali language speaking people. It is also an important symbol in the film. But the key ring is the main symbol to identify the connotative meaning. Christian Metz said that it is not because cinema is language that it can such fine stories, but rather it has become language it has told such fine stories.[Metz, Film Language, p.47]. Zahir Raihan’s cinematic styles is less important that its message because it has a fine story. It expresses Bengali nationalism with the above signs. Films manage to communicate meaning in two different manners. One denotative meaning and the other is connotative meaning. In the film there exist the two meanings. In denotative meaning, we see the image, hear the sound and easily know the signs of the cinema. But in connotative meaning, we have to explore the implicit meaning of the signs. Connotative meaning expresses the metaphorical meaning of the signs. Thus the film expresses the metaphorical meaning with the help of connotative meaning of the signs. In semiotics theory connotative meaning has two axes for example, Paradigmatic connotation and Syntagmatic connotation. We will analyze the whole film with an important symbol for example key ring. It is the paradigmatic connotation and how to present it is syntagmatic connotation. Cinematic signs have three kinds of orders that Peter Wollen suggested in his book ‘Signs and meaning in the cinema (1969). Jibon Theke Neya film covers all the orders here for example icon, index and symbol. We discuss about the posters as icon of the film and Amor Ekushe (Immortal Twenty First), Alponas (geometric flowery design), Krishnachura trees and Shahid Minar (Martyred Monument) are the index of the film that have directly relationship with Bengali Language Movement, in 1952. Women wearing Shakhas indicates the conventional symbol in the film. This indicates Hindu religion in the film. The Hindus and Muslims go to martyred monument to with flowers to respect them on bare feet. We also can know the psychological condition of a man or woman. We can know the hotness and coolness by index and symbol. We can guess the psychological state of the hot tempered dictator lady by index and symbol. On the other hand the positive state or cool mind state is revealed of two sisters and two brothers. So, index in cinema is very important to understand the relationship of coolness and hotness of human psychological state. Daniel Chanlder (2001) in his book ‘Semiotics the Basics’ said that codes organize signs into meaningful systems which correlate signifiers and signifies through the structural forms of syntagms and paradigms. Stuart Hall said that there is no intelligible discourse without the operation of codes. Actually three kinds of codes are used in cinema. In Jibon Theke Neya movie, the codes are used precisely. Now we will find the metaphorical meaning through the codes and also know the types of codes. Social codes are divided into several types of codes. For example, verbal codes, bodily codes, commodity codes, behavioral codes. In verbal codes, we see only the dictator lady speaks about her power and wants to dominate all time. The dominated member of the family cannot talk about their rights. In bodily codes, for example, lady’s husband tells his brother in-law shoutedly about Shathi so that Lady cannot know the bodily expression from other room that,  ‘Deadly, deadly, women are deadly’.  But he silently and bodily tells his brother-in-law that,  ‘You don’t listen to my words’  We can know the fashions, clothes of Anisur Rahman a lawyer, Faruk, Bithi students, the matchmaker, police, Anwar Hossain, the dictator lady and all others. We also see the cars when Anwar Hossain goes to jail and newly married Shathi goes to her husband’s house with different cars at the same time. These commodity codes express the melodramatic scenes. In the second stage, the use of painting, romanticism between Faruk and Bithi on the other hand Anisur and Shathi, the realism of slogan and meeting and protests are all of textual codes. The posters (Textual codes) are also expressing the revolutionary state. The last stage, interpretative codes are perceptual and ideological codes. We can know the perception of human psychology through perceptual codes for example, the character’s ear, eye, nose and lips. What they hear and what they listen. In the film the dictator lady only speaks and the other members cannot speak only they hear through their ears and see through their eyes. Through ideological codes, we can understand and think any kind of ism or ideology for example on the perspective of this film; racism, socialism, nationalism and power. The ideology of this kind of subject comes to our mind and can know that kind of ideas.  Power in Jibon Theke Neya:  You have a lot of power. But you cannot take it for a life time if you are tyrannical. Jibon Theke Neya is a political film that expresses Bengali nationalism. This film delivers two kinds of statements one is inside the house and other outside the house; domestic and public. The women are struggling inside the house to take over the power and the men are struggling for their rights, their democracy, independence and freedom. So, there are revolutionary activities inside the house and in the public at large meaning. Zahir Raihan makes its ending through two family’s activities. In one side, Anwar Hossaain and his sisters are protesting characters. On the other hand the dictator woman’s house, the members are silent and oppressed members. But in the last stage we see all the members are protesting characters except the dictator lady. No one can tolerate the oppression of the autocratic lady’s rule in the house. So, the two brothers get married so that the key ring is transferred and peace comes to their house. But desire of power is eternal to the dictator lady. So, she conspired to kill her sister-in-law to get the power. We can understand her oppression and abuse of power through her dialogues.     Woman:   Where have you been in so early in the morning like a thief on bare feet?  Faruk:      As today is the 21st February, I went to a Provat Feri.  Woman:   21st February? What type of thing is this?  Faruk:       Don’t you really know what is 21st February?  Woman:   I don’t need to know. It seems like a barbarian you danced on bare feet on the whole                      street, didn’t you? Listen, knowing that these of thing I can’t tolerate why did you go                     there? Remember, if you go again there, I’ll close down your study!     This is one kind of proof that how a sister behaves with her brother. And she does not know what 21st February is. Only a dictator can speak in such a way. Actually, she symbolizes the political dictator ruler of then East Pakistan Ayub Khan. The lady’s characterization has been expressed based on the West Pakistani military dictatorship of Ayub Khan from 1958 to 1969. The dictator lady’s character will be displayed through anther her dominated activities on her servants. The male servant Keramot has spent much oil. So,     Woman:             The price of milk and oil is being cut off from your salary.  Woman:             who has taken this glass here? Haven’t I told hundredth days no one will bring                              this glass from my home, if you touch it any more, I told, I will cut off your                               hand.  Not only this but also she does not stay behind oppressing her husband when he sings on the roof. He cannot sing song inside the house for her wife’s oppression.     Woman:              Noh, after breaking the tabla and harmonium a lot of times, cannot you                               understand that singing in this household is forbidden?  Woman:                Ah ha ha ha! What my truthful husband! When you get obstacle telling a lie,                                 you don’t feel shy eating my brother’s earning sitting in this house? When my                                 brother is an advocate, you rather can do clerkship of him. Either you will do                                 clerkship from tomorrow neither the whole day will stand for clients under                                   the banyan tree. You cannot sing.  Dictator Lady’s brother Anisur Rahman earns well at the advocacy profession. But he is not also free from her oppression. He starts smoking inside the room.     Woman:                What is the matter at last you are starting smoking? Today smoking, tomorrow                                 wine another day perhaps will see card chat. Did I spoil these years                                 behind you for this? As if I do not see smoking from tomorrow.     The family members cannot speak against her. If anyone does that, the dictator lady shows her power upon them. In the film once her husband affixes the poster over the wall of the house and all the members have to tolerate her oppression. ‘No autocracy’, ‘have to give singing right’, ‘must have to give husband’s right’ these points are written on the poster.   Woman:               Keramot, Anis, Faruk, what are these? Who has affixed them? Who? Who?                             How dare he? Who has affixed them? Why doesn’t reply? I gave an hour over                             whose walls the posters are affixed will be cleared through water. Otherwise,                             your rice, breakfast and entering into this house will be closed down from today.       For taking ruling power of the house the dictator lady can do everything. She always gets fear that when her ruling power is transferring. So, she was not agreed to make marry to her brother at the first time. But when her brothers by force marry to take ruling power (the key ring) over new bride, she is bound to give the power over her. But at first she does not let the new married husband wife to unite at their room.     Woman:              That is not good don’t I understand? If I let her to unite with him today, from                                   tomorrow laughing will be started, from the next day house’s matter will be                               come out, then will see taking the key ring of this household from me will tied                                 up at the fringe of his wife. Remember, it’s my house. I must do what is                               needed to keep in hand the key ring.  In Jibon theke Neya cinema, Zahir Raihan has given the total power upon the autocratic lady. So, the family members or anyone do not get power to speak against her. But a new hope is kept in nationalism chapter where the women members struggle inside the house and men members outside the house. We discuss it in the nationalism part.  Nationalism in Jibon Theke Neya:  The main hero of nationalism in the film is Anwar Hossain. Besides, Faruk, dictator woman’s husband (Khan Ataur Rahman), Modhu are the other protesting characters in the film. Never power is stayed to an autocratic person for the whole time. Its religion is changing or transferring. Either the ruler is autocratic or democratic he/she must leave the position. In the film Zahir Raihan upholds the autocratic woman as the character of the then Pakistani military dictator Ayub Khan. This film is directed inspired from Bangle Language Movement occurred in 1952. Bengali people have tolerated many oppression of the autocratic ruler Ayub Khan. And the film is the ardent proof. Bengali people never forget that kinds of oppression. Now we will discuss nationalism with the help of post colonial theory. As in 1970, Bangladesh was a colony of West Pakistan, it was then under colonialism. Indian subcontinent was under colonialism of Britain. But Indian subcontinent is divided between India and Pakistan in 1947. India becomes independent. But still Bangladesh was under Pakistan. It was a province and the West Pakistan started its oppression over East Pakistan (Now Bangladesh) through economically, politically, socially, culturally and religiously. West Pakistan deprived East Pakistan from every important sector. This film is the flaming proof of it. Now we will try to explain nationalism in Jibon Theke Neya through post colonial theory. Shome says that this is not a theory but an approach to understand the context of colonialism (2002).It explores colonial condition to critique it to explain why and how colonialism takes place and resistance to colonialism. Orientalism discusses about how the West creates a myth about the East, they defined they are superior they also think that the East is exotic, seductive, barbaric, criminal, dangerous.[Orientaism (1978) by Edward said] In the film West Pakistan thinks East Pakistan similarly. The autocratic lady’s activities are the example of it. For, she symbolizes the dictator ruler Ayub Khan of West Pakistan. Post colonialism sees race, class, gender sexuality and nationality within geopolitical arrangements and national or international histories. It also deals with the problematic which are no boundered by national border. In the film the protesting activities of the protesting characters are limited within the border. The whole world does not watch the oppressive activities of West Pakistan. In 1971, many countries also were against the independence of Bangladesh and they supported Pakistan. But one thing is very important in colonialism that is knowledge or education. Decolonization saw an influx of intelligentsia into institutions of higher education or knowledge in the United States and Britain. When most of the countries are decolonized from the colonialism, the other colonized people saw it and the earned higher education and knowledge helped them to understand about the oppression of colonizers and they wanted decolonization or freedom. The same condition was in Bangladesh. The higher educational people could understand and lifted about their rights and freedom. That is also noticeable in the film. The protesting characters specially, Anwar Hossain is a higher educated person. Faruk and Bithi are the Dhaka University students. Not only that the woman’s husband (Khan Ataur Rahman) and Anisur rahman are also higher educated persons. They easily can know about the oppression of the autocratic lady. So, they want freedom and rights. Post colonial theory discusses about nationality and national identity, deterritorializations of colonial and national power. We see the both colonial and national power in the film. But colonial power is ended up and national power is seen as a hope for living. Jibon Theke Neya (1970) is a third cinema. The main characteristics of third cinema are they are revolutionary cinema that would focus on the masses and express their political goals through innovative cinematic forms. Here message is more important than cinematic technique. Calcutta 71 (1971) directed by Mrinal Sen is also a third cinema. All the characteristics are remaining in the cinema. In post colonial cinema, can colonized people speak? No. they cannot speak against colonizers. But after that we see nationalism. Colonial power and nationalism go in the parallel way. In one side we see colonial power and on the other side we see national power and colonial power is defeated by national power. National power is very strong.  Anwar Hossain:             What I have got and what I have given if I calculate this, I cannot love                                         country. You must love country selflessly. Who are busy with debt and                                         due, are destroying.  In colonized country poverty is seen everywhere as the colonizers deprive colonized people from everything food, clothes and basics needs.  Anwar:                  Why don’t you understand, Modhu, that it is our life? Where the life is tired                               struggling with poverty, thinking the issue of marriage is wrong.     One day in this Bengal there were rice fulfilled in the granary, fishes in the ponds and the golden land were fulfilled with golden crops. But now they are struggling with poverty. The domestic and public struggling against autocracy is prevailing in the parallel way. When the country is filled with a lot of problems, the house is also facing with problems.     Khan Ataur Rahman:    Brother, I want to know a word means wn advice.  Anwar Hoassin:             What?  Khan Ataur Rahman:    It means, you do movement being injustice and oppression. You do                                          meeting, protest, affix posters. But suppose, if oppression and injustice                                         are at home, what should do there?  Anwar Hossain:             Country and house these are similar. Country is at large and house is in                                         small meaning. Like movement is needed against wrong and oppression                                        in country, you have to do movement inside the house.  When oppression is extreme upon a nation by colonizers, the nation finds its solution through nationalism. Nationalism is found through movement, affixing poster about basic needs being united with culture. They struggle for freedom, rights, independence.  Faruk:                        who said it is your household? It is ours.  Woman:                      what? What? How dare you? Get out from here.  Faruk:                         you will get out? Why will I go?  Woman:                     what? A large word in a tiny mouth?  Faruk:                         Careful, you won’t do that, what’s younger?  Huh, you are oppressing on                                      elder brother getting soft minded. But showing temper with me, there is                                    danger.  Faruk:                       you have ruled in this household for a long time, not more. From today,                                    sister-in-law will rule the household whom you have kept like servant.  Modhu is killed in the movement of ‘want rice, want clothes and want to live with rights’. Nationalism is expressed in the cinema at the beginning with the points ‘a country, a family, a key-ring, a movement, a film’. Many songs have been used to show unity in the film. O Amar Shwapno Jhora Akulkora Jonmovumi (Oh my dreamy motherland who made me devoted to her) song is started in the beginning of the film. Amor Ekushe (Immortal Twenty First), song of Provat Feri ‘Amar Bhaier Rokte Rangano Ekushe February Ami Ki Bhulite Pari?’ (Can I forget the Twenty First February incarnadined by the blood of my brothers?) have been used in the film as the symbol of nationalism. For the first time, Zahir Raihan has used the famous song by Rabindranath Tagore in the film to inspire the people about the independence of Bangladesh. ‘Amar Sonar Bangla, Ami Tomai Bhalobashi (My Bengal of gold, I love you) is used to show inspiration to the Bengalis. ‘Karar Oi Louho Kopat .. Bhenge Fel Korre Lopat’ song has been used to increase the race of movement. ‘Dao, Dao, Dao Duniar Joto Goribke Aj Jagie Dao’ rebellious song has been used to unite the people of different class, different religion and of different views. Nationalism among the Bengali people is increased day by day. They become conscious about their freedom and the independence of Bangladesh. The main target of the film was to inspire the people to increase their consciousness about independence. General Rao Farman Ali watches the film in a screening and told Zahir Raihan that ‘I will see you’. Pakistan government at first did not allow displaying the cinema among the mass people so that they can see it and become conscious about independence. But they were bound to release the movie by the pressure of mass people.     Conclusion:  In the conclusion, the film JIbon Theke Neya is directed inspiring of Bengali Language Movement. Benagli Language Movement is the one of the main symbols to raise nationalism among the people. Zahir Raihan directed this film to inspire the people of Bangladesh to become conscious about the independence of Bangladesh. So, he showed dare to direct this kind of third cinema under the colonized country. Like he has showed the injustice and oppression, he has showed the approaches to become independent from colonizers. He showed public problematic through a domestic point of view so that the mass people easily understand the film and get the main message of the film.  References  Jibon Theke Neya: Cinema that reflects life (2017). Daily Asian Age. Retrieved from  Afsana Aziz Nitol (2017), Jibon Theke Neya, an emblem of political satire. The Daily Observer.  Farjana Liakat (2019),  ‘Jibon Theke Neya', an exposure of authority. Prothom Alo.  Christian Metz (1974), Film Language. (P.47)  Peter Wollen (1969), Signs and Meaning in the Cinema.  Daniel Chandler (2001), Semiotics: The Basics.  Shome, R & Hedge, R (2002), Postcolonial approaches to communication: charting the terrain, engaging the intersections.  Sandra Ponzanesi, Marguerite Waller (2012), Postcolonial Cinema Studies.  Edward Said (1978), Orientalism.  Films Cited  Zahir Raihan (Director & Producer) Jibon Theke Neya (1970)  Mrinal Sen (Director) D. S. Pictures (Producer) Calcutta 71 (1971)
Jibon Theke Neya (1970) Film Poster
The Key Ring and Symbolism:
In Jibon Theke Neya (1970), there are many important signs have been used to express the film as metaphorical film. The key ring is one of them. The matchmaker in the film tells that the key ring is the power of dictator lady. Thus her husband can know that if the key ring is transferred from one hand to another, tow will rule in the household and the dictatorship will be vanished. So, here the key ring is the main symbol in the film and it is used as metaphorically in the film. It is the main power of the household. Besides, there are other symbols that have been used also metaphorically. For example; a glass with poison that expresses conspiracy, a bell metal bowl and plate with changing sound express tyrannical activities and a jumping koi fish expresses life without water under the dictator’s rule. Besides, there are some alphabetical sings have been used in the film. Different kinds of posters, writings, ‘Ekhushe February in Bengali language (21st February), Shahid Minar (Martyred Monument), flower, bare feet, new born baby ‘Mukti’ of Faruk and Bithi that expresses a new hope and many have been used here. According to Ferdinand de Saussure sign is the total of signifier and signified. Here signifiers are image of these symbols and sound on the other hand signified is the concept that comes in mind hearing the sign. All the different signs have their own connotative meaning. We will discuss it later. Christian Metz and Peter Wollen used the concept of semiotics to study cinema. They argue that ‘shots are the signs in cinema. This is called short circuit sign because the signifier and the signified are almost identical in cinema sign (shot).’ In the film Jibon Theke Neya (1970) all the symbols are identical. They always express something metaphorical meaning. We see the first shot of the film where Anwar Hossain writes ‘Ekhushe February’ (21st February) on a poster that is also identical. It expresses Bengali language speaking people. It is also an important symbol in the film. But the key ring is the main symbol to identify the connotative meaning. Christian Metz said that it is not because cinema is language that it can such fine stories, but rather it has become language it has told such fine stories.[Metz, Film Language, p.47]. Zahir Raihan’s cinematic styles is less important that its message because it has a fine story. It expresses Bengali nationalism with the above signs. Films manage to communicate meaning in two different manners. One denotative meaning and the other is connotative meaning. In the film there exist the two meanings. In denotative meaning, we see the image, hear the sound and easily know the signs of the cinema. But in connotative meaning, we have to explore the implicit meaning of the signs. Connotative meaning expresses the metaphorical meaning of the signs. Thus the film expresses the metaphorical meaning with the help of connotative meaning of the signs. In semiotics theory connotative meaning has two axes for example, Paradigmatic connotation and Syntagmatic connotation. We will analyze the whole film with an important symbol for example key ring. It is the paradigmatic connotation and how to present it is syntagmatic connotation. Cinematic signs have three kinds of orders that Peter Wollen suggested in his book ‘Signs and meaning in the cinema (1969). Jibon Theke Neya film covers all the orders here for example icon, index and symbol. We discuss about the posters as icon of the film and Amor Ekushe (Immortal Twenty First), Alponas (geometric flowery design), Krishnachura trees and Shahid Minar (Martyred Monument) are the index of the film that have directly relationship with Bengali Language Movement, in 1952. Women wearing Shakhas indicates the conventional symbol in the film. This indicates Hindu religion in the film. The Hindus and Muslims go to martyred monument to with flowers to respect them on bare feet. We also can know the psychological condition of a man or woman. We can know the hotness and coolness by index and symbol. We can guess the psychological state of the hot tempered dictator lady by index and symbol. On the other hand the positive state or cool mind state is revealed of two sisters and two brothers. So, index in cinema is very important to understand the relationship of coolness and hotness of human psychological state. Daniel Chanlder (2001) in his book ‘Semiotics the Basics’ said that codes organize signs into meaningful systems which correlate signifiers and signifies through the structural forms of syntagms and paradigms. Stuart Hall said that there is no intelligible discourse without the operation of codes. Actually three kinds of codes are used in cinema. In Jibon Theke Neya movie, the codes are used precisely. Now we will find the metaphorical meaning through the codes and also know the types of codes. Social codes are divided into several types of codes. For example, verbal codes, bodily codes, commodity codes, behavioral codes. In verbal codes, we see only the dictator lady speaks about her power and wants to dominate all time. The dominated member of the family cannot talk about their rights. In bodily codes, for example, lady’s husband tells his brother in-law shoutedly about Shathi so that Lady cannot know the bodily expression from other room that,
‘Deadly, deadly, women are deadly’.
But he silently and bodily tells his brother-in-law that,
‘You don’t listen to my words’
We can know the fashions, clothes of Anisur Rahman a lawyer, Faruk, Bithi students, the matchmaker, police, Anwar Hossain, the dictator lady and all others. We also see the cars when Anwar Hossain goes to jail and newly married Shathi goes to her husband’s house with different cars at the same time. These commodity codes express the melodramatic scenes. In the second stage, the use of painting, romanticism between Faruk and Bithi on the other hand Anisur and Shathi, the realism of slogan and meeting and protests are all of textual codes. The posters (Textual codes) are also expressing the revolutionary state. The last stage, interpretative codes are perceptual and ideological codes. We can know the perception of human psychology through perceptual codes for example, the character’s ear, eye, nose and lips. What they hear and what they listen. In the film the dictator lady only speaks and the other members cannot speak only they hear through their ears and see through their eyes. Through ideological codes, we can understand and think any kind of ism or ideology for example on the perspective of this film; racism, socialism, nationalism and power. The ideology of this kind of subject comes to our mind and can know that kind of ideas.

Symbolism, Power and Nationalism in Jibon Theke Neya (1970)  Md. Robiul Islam  Abstract: This is a critical film review of the film Jibon Theke Neya (1970) directed by Zahir Raihan. The review will help to understand the metaphorical meaning of the film. This review argues that the symbolic characterization of the film indicates the power and nationalism for an independent country ‘Bangladesh’. This analysis employs semiotic cinema theory and post colonial theory as the approaches to establish the argument.     Key Words: Symbolism, Power, Nationalism  “Your wife is a great politician, she has done this to get the bunch of keys”….                                                                                                                          ____ Marriage-broker  “Keep in mind, it’s my house. I will do what is needed to keep in hand the bunch of keys”…                                                                                                                             ____Lady Dictator  “Modhu, this soil is mine this soil belongs to my land, Modhu. You, I and all others were born on this soil (….) we live on this soil, and this soil is so adorable like my mother, so sacred. I don’t want this golden soil of my golden land to be tarnished that is why I always speak about my country, about soil of my land.”                                                                                                                            ____Anwar Hossain        Jibon Theke Neya (1970) is a political satire based on the Bengali Language Movement under the rule of Pakistan. Metaphorically and symbolically power and nationalism have been expressed in this cinema. Director Zahir Raihan has characterized it through an autocratic woman (Rawshan Jamil) of a family who is the political dictator and symbolizes of Ayub Khan in East Pakistan. On the other hand others have been characterized as protesting characters. Nationalism is expressed through their speech and activities.     From Previous Literature:  There are no international journals or articles about Jibon Theke Neya (1970). But few notable works about this film has been done. For example; Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bangladesh publishes an article about the film titled “Jibon Thekey Neya (Glimpses of Life, 1970): The First Political Film in Pre-Liberation Bangladesh and A cinematic metaphor for nationalist concerns” by Fahmida Akhter, Assistant Professor, Department of Drama and Dramatics, Jahangirnagar University. [Vol. 59(2), 2014, pp.291-303] But there is no inner connotation meaning or indefinite argument of the article. She only writes about the explanation of the cinema and some codes of cinema that are used in the film that indicates the nationality and Bengali’s cultural program codes. Besides, the Daily Star reports about it titled ‘Zahir Raihan and the making of Jibon Thekey Neya’ by Naznin Tithi. [19 August, 2017]  She only writes about the film making, releasing, and censor board and cinema explanation a few. The Daily Asian Age reports about it as titled ‘Jibon Theke Neya: Cinema that reflects life’ [6 November, 2017]. But it explains a short introduction of the cinema only. Daily Observer writes about it as titled ‘Jibon Theke Neya, an emblem of political satire’ by Afsana Aziz Nitol [23 March, 2017]. Here the film has been explained on the perspective of metaphor and about nationalism .The Daily Prothom Alo writes about it as titled ‘Jibon Theke Neya’, an exposure of authority’ by Farzana Liakat [25 March, 219]. This article expresses some inner explanation of the cinema and about the release of the film. It also discusses about the nationality and this kind of political film is very tough to be released under colonial regime.     Theoretical Framework:  This study employs semiotic cinema theory and pos colonial approaches to understand the metaphorical characterization and the metaphorical development of the film. It will help to understand how the symbolism, power and nationalism have been expressed metaphorically. To study the film, Ferdinand de Saussure’s semiotics, Metz and Peter Wollen’s theory, Daniel Chandler’s theory and post colonial cinema theory will be used to understand it.     The Key Ring and Symbolism:  In Jibon Theke Neya (1970), there are many important signs have been used to express the film as metaphorical film. The key ring is one of them. The matchmaker in the film tells that the key ring is the power of dictator lady. Thus her husband can know that if the key ring is transferred from one hand to another, tow will rule in the household and the dictatorship will be vanished. So, here the key ring is the main symbol in the film and it is used as metaphorically in the film. It is the main power of the household. Besides, there are other symbols that have been used also metaphorically. For example; a glass with poison that expresses conspiracy, a bell metal bowl and plate with changing sound express tyrannical activities and a jumping koi fish expresses life without water under the dictator’s rule. Besides, there are some alphabetical sings have been used in the film. Different kinds of posters, writings, ‘Ekhushe February in Bengali language (21st February), Shahid Minar (Martyred Monument), flower, bare feet, new born baby ‘Mukti’ of Faruk and Bithi that expresses a new hope and many have been used here. According to Ferdinand de Saussure sign is the total of signifier and signified. Here signifiers are image of these symbols and sound on the other hand signified is the concept that comes in mind hearing the sign. All the different signs have their own connotative meaning. We will discuss it later. Christian Metz and Peter Wollen used the concept of semiotics to study cinema. They argue that ‘shots are the signs in cinema. This is called short circuit sign because the signifier and the signified are almost identical in cinema sign (shot).’ In the film Jibon Theke Neya (1970) all the symbols are identical. They always express something metaphorical meaning. We see the first shot of the film where Anwar Hossain writes ‘Ekhushe February’ (21st February) on a poster that is also identical. It expresses Bengali language speaking people. It is also an important symbol in the film. But the key ring is the main symbol to identify the connotative meaning. Christian Metz said that it is not because cinema is language that it can such fine stories, but rather it has become language it has told such fine stories.[Metz, Film Language, p.47]. Zahir Raihan’s cinematic styles is less important that its message because it has a fine story. It expresses Bengali nationalism with the above signs. Films manage to communicate meaning in two different manners. One denotative meaning and the other is connotative meaning. In the film there exist the two meanings. In denotative meaning, we see the image, hear the sound and easily know the signs of the cinema. But in connotative meaning, we have to explore the implicit meaning of the signs. Connotative meaning expresses the metaphorical meaning of the signs. Thus the film expresses the metaphorical meaning with the help of connotative meaning of the signs. In semiotics theory connotative meaning has two axes for example, Paradigmatic connotation and Syntagmatic connotation. We will analyze the whole film with an important symbol for example key ring. It is the paradigmatic connotation and how to present it is syntagmatic connotation. Cinematic signs have three kinds of orders that Peter Wollen suggested in his book ‘Signs and meaning in the cinema (1969). Jibon Theke Neya film covers all the orders here for example icon, index and symbol. We discuss about the posters as icon of the film and Amor Ekushe (Immortal Twenty First), Alponas (geometric flowery design), Krishnachura trees and Shahid Minar (Martyred Monument) are the index of the film that have directly relationship with Bengali Language Movement, in 1952. Women wearing Shakhas indicates the conventional symbol in the film. This indicates Hindu religion in the film. The Hindus and Muslims go to martyred monument to with flowers to respect them on bare feet. We also can know the psychological condition of a man or woman. We can know the hotness and coolness by index and symbol. We can guess the psychological state of the hot tempered dictator lady by index and symbol. On the other hand the positive state or cool mind state is revealed of two sisters and two brothers. So, index in cinema is very important to understand the relationship of coolness and hotness of human psychological state. Daniel Chanlder (2001) in his book ‘Semiotics the Basics’ said that codes organize signs into meaningful systems which correlate signifiers and signifies through the structural forms of syntagms and paradigms. Stuart Hall said that there is no intelligible discourse without the operation of codes. Actually three kinds of codes are used in cinema. In Jibon Theke Neya movie, the codes are used precisely. Now we will find the metaphorical meaning through the codes and also know the types of codes. Social codes are divided into several types of codes. For example, verbal codes, bodily codes, commodity codes, behavioral codes. In verbal codes, we see only the dictator lady speaks about her power and wants to dominate all time. The dominated member of the family cannot talk about their rights. In bodily codes, for example, lady’s husband tells his brother in-law shoutedly about Shathi so that Lady cannot know the bodily expression from other room that,  ‘Deadly, deadly, women are deadly’.  But he silently and bodily tells his brother-in-law that,  ‘You don’t listen to my words’  We can know the fashions, clothes of Anisur Rahman a lawyer, Faruk, Bithi students, the matchmaker, police, Anwar Hossain, the dictator lady and all others. We also see the cars when Anwar Hossain goes to jail and newly married Shathi goes to her husband’s house with different cars at the same time. These commodity codes express the melodramatic scenes. In the second stage, the use of painting, romanticism between Faruk and Bithi on the other hand Anisur and Shathi, the realism of slogan and meeting and protests are all of textual codes. The posters (Textual codes) are also expressing the revolutionary state. The last stage, interpretative codes are perceptual and ideological codes. We can know the perception of human psychology through perceptual codes for example, the character’s ear, eye, nose and lips. What they hear and what they listen. In the film the dictator lady only speaks and the other members cannot speak only they hear through their ears and see through their eyes. Through ideological codes, we can understand and think any kind of ism or ideology for example on the perspective of this film; racism, socialism, nationalism and power. The ideology of this kind of subject comes to our mind and can know that kind of ideas.  Power in Jibon Theke Neya:  You have a lot of power. But you cannot take it for a life time if you are tyrannical. Jibon Theke Neya is a political film that expresses Bengali nationalism. This film delivers two kinds of statements one is inside the house and other outside the house; domestic and public. The women are struggling inside the house to take over the power and the men are struggling for their rights, their democracy, independence and freedom. So, there are revolutionary activities inside the house and in the public at large meaning. Zahir Raihan makes its ending through two family’s activities. In one side, Anwar Hossaain and his sisters are protesting characters. On the other hand the dictator woman’s house, the members are silent and oppressed members. But in the last stage we see all the members are protesting characters except the dictator lady. No one can tolerate the oppression of the autocratic lady’s rule in the house. So, the two brothers get married so that the key ring is transferred and peace comes to their house. But desire of power is eternal to the dictator lady. So, she conspired to kill her sister-in-law to get the power. We can understand her oppression and abuse of power through her dialogues.     Woman:   Where have you been in so early in the morning like a thief on bare feet?  Faruk:      As today is the 21st February, I went to a Provat Feri.  Woman:   21st February? What type of thing is this?  Faruk:       Don’t you really know what is 21st February?  Woman:   I don’t need to know. It seems like a barbarian you danced on bare feet on the whole                      street, didn’t you? Listen, knowing that these of thing I can’t tolerate why did you go                     there? Remember, if you go again there, I’ll close down your study!     This is one kind of proof that how a sister behaves with her brother. And she does not know what 21st February is. Only a dictator can speak in such a way. Actually, she symbolizes the political dictator ruler of then East Pakistan Ayub Khan. The lady’s characterization has been expressed based on the West Pakistani military dictatorship of Ayub Khan from 1958 to 1969. The dictator lady’s character will be displayed through anther her dominated activities on her servants. The male servant Keramot has spent much oil. So,     Woman:             The price of milk and oil is being cut off from your salary.  Woman:             who has taken this glass here? Haven’t I told hundredth days no one will bring                              this glass from my home, if you touch it any more, I told, I will cut off your                               hand.  Not only this but also she does not stay behind oppressing her husband when he sings on the roof. He cannot sing song inside the house for her wife’s oppression.     Woman:              Noh, after breaking the tabla and harmonium a lot of times, cannot you                               understand that singing in this household is forbidden?  Woman:                Ah ha ha ha! What my truthful husband! When you get obstacle telling a lie,                                 you don’t feel shy eating my brother’s earning sitting in this house? When my                                 brother is an advocate, you rather can do clerkship of him. Either you will do                                 clerkship from tomorrow neither the whole day will stand for clients under                                   the banyan tree. You cannot sing.  Dictator Lady’s brother Anisur Rahman earns well at the advocacy profession. But he is not also free from her oppression. He starts smoking inside the room.     Woman:                What is the matter at last you are starting smoking? Today smoking, tomorrow                                 wine another day perhaps will see card chat. Did I spoil these years                                 behind you for this? As if I do not see smoking from tomorrow.     The family members cannot speak against her. If anyone does that, the dictator lady shows her power upon them. In the film once her husband affixes the poster over the wall of the house and all the members have to tolerate her oppression. ‘No autocracy’, ‘have to give singing right’, ‘must have to give husband’s right’ these points are written on the poster.   Woman:               Keramot, Anis, Faruk, what are these? Who has affixed them? Who? Who?                             How dare he? Who has affixed them? Why doesn’t reply? I gave an hour over                             whose walls the posters are affixed will be cleared through water. Otherwise,                             your rice, breakfast and entering into this house will be closed down from today.       For taking ruling power of the house the dictator lady can do everything. She always gets fear that when her ruling power is transferring. So, she was not agreed to make marry to her brother at the first time. But when her brothers by force marry to take ruling power (the key ring) over new bride, she is bound to give the power over her. But at first she does not let the new married husband wife to unite at their room.     Woman:              That is not good don’t I understand? If I let her to unite with him today, from                                   tomorrow laughing will be started, from the next day house’s matter will be                               come out, then will see taking the key ring of this household from me will tied                                 up at the fringe of his wife. Remember, it’s my house. I must do what is                               needed to keep in hand the key ring.  In Jibon theke Neya cinema, Zahir Raihan has given the total power upon the autocratic lady. So, the family members or anyone do not get power to speak against her. But a new hope is kept in nationalism chapter where the women members struggle inside the house and men members outside the house. We discuss it in the nationalism part.  Nationalism in Jibon Theke Neya:  The main hero of nationalism in the film is Anwar Hossain. Besides, Faruk, dictator woman’s husband (Khan Ataur Rahman), Modhu are the other protesting characters in the film. Never power is stayed to an autocratic person for the whole time. Its religion is changing or transferring. Either the ruler is autocratic or democratic he/she must leave the position. In the film Zahir Raihan upholds the autocratic woman as the character of the then Pakistani military dictator Ayub Khan. This film is directed inspired from Bangle Language Movement occurred in 1952. Bengali people have tolerated many oppression of the autocratic ruler Ayub Khan. And the film is the ardent proof. Bengali people never forget that kinds of oppression. Now we will discuss nationalism with the help of post colonial theory. As in 1970, Bangladesh was a colony of West Pakistan, it was then under colonialism. Indian subcontinent was under colonialism of Britain. But Indian subcontinent is divided between India and Pakistan in 1947. India becomes independent. But still Bangladesh was under Pakistan. It was a province and the West Pakistan started its oppression over East Pakistan (Now Bangladesh) through economically, politically, socially, culturally and religiously. West Pakistan deprived East Pakistan from every important sector. This film is the flaming proof of it. Now we will try to explain nationalism in Jibon Theke Neya through post colonial theory. Shome says that this is not a theory but an approach to understand the context of colonialism (2002).It explores colonial condition to critique it to explain why and how colonialism takes place and resistance to colonialism. Orientalism discusses about how the West creates a myth about the East, they defined they are superior they also think that the East is exotic, seductive, barbaric, criminal, dangerous.[Orientaism (1978) by Edward said] In the film West Pakistan thinks East Pakistan similarly. The autocratic lady’s activities are the example of it. For, she symbolizes the dictator ruler Ayub Khan of West Pakistan. Post colonialism sees race, class, gender sexuality and nationality within geopolitical arrangements and national or international histories. It also deals with the problematic which are no boundered by national border. In the film the protesting activities of the protesting characters are limited within the border. The whole world does not watch the oppressive activities of West Pakistan. In 1971, many countries also were against the independence of Bangladesh and they supported Pakistan. But one thing is very important in colonialism that is knowledge or education. Decolonization saw an influx of intelligentsia into institutions of higher education or knowledge in the United States and Britain. When most of the countries are decolonized from the colonialism, the other colonized people saw it and the earned higher education and knowledge helped them to understand about the oppression of colonizers and they wanted decolonization or freedom. The same condition was in Bangladesh. The higher educational people could understand and lifted about their rights and freedom. That is also noticeable in the film. The protesting characters specially, Anwar Hossain is a higher educated person. Faruk and Bithi are the Dhaka University students. Not only that the woman’s husband (Khan Ataur Rahman) and Anisur rahman are also higher educated persons. They easily can know about the oppression of the autocratic lady. So, they want freedom and rights. Post colonial theory discusses about nationality and national identity, deterritorializations of colonial and national power. We see the both colonial and national power in the film. But colonial power is ended up and national power is seen as a hope for living. Jibon Theke Neya (1970) is a third cinema. The main characteristics of third cinema are they are revolutionary cinema that would focus on the masses and express their political goals through innovative cinematic forms. Here message is more important than cinematic technique. Calcutta 71 (1971) directed by Mrinal Sen is also a third cinema. All the characteristics are remaining in the cinema. In post colonial cinema, can colonized people speak? No. they cannot speak against colonizers. But after that we see nationalism. Colonial power and nationalism go in the parallel way. In one side we see colonial power and on the other side we see national power and colonial power is defeated by national power. National power is very strong.  Anwar Hossain:             What I have got and what I have given if I calculate this, I cannot love                                         country. You must love country selflessly. Who are busy with debt and                                         due, are destroying.  In colonized country poverty is seen everywhere as the colonizers deprive colonized people from everything food, clothes and basics needs.  Anwar:                  Why don’t you understand, Modhu, that it is our life? Where the life is tired                               struggling with poverty, thinking the issue of marriage is wrong.     One day in this Bengal there were rice fulfilled in the granary, fishes in the ponds and the golden land were fulfilled with golden crops. But now they are struggling with poverty. The domestic and public struggling against autocracy is prevailing in the parallel way. When the country is filled with a lot of problems, the house is also facing with problems.     Khan Ataur Rahman:    Brother, I want to know a word means wn advice.  Anwar Hoassin:             What?  Khan Ataur Rahman:    It means, you do movement being injustice and oppression. You do                                          meeting, protest, affix posters. But suppose, if oppression and injustice                                         are at home, what should do there?  Anwar Hossain:             Country and house these are similar. Country is at large and house is in                                         small meaning. Like movement is needed against wrong and oppression                                        in country, you have to do movement inside the house.  When oppression is extreme upon a nation by colonizers, the nation finds its solution through nationalism. Nationalism is found through movement, affixing poster about basic needs being united with culture. They struggle for freedom, rights, independence.  Faruk:                        who said it is your household? It is ours.  Woman:                      what? What? How dare you? Get out from here.  Faruk:                         you will get out? Why will I go?  Woman:                     what? A large word in a tiny mouth?  Faruk:                         Careful, you won’t do that, what’s younger?  Huh, you are oppressing on                                      elder brother getting soft minded. But showing temper with me, there is                                    danger.  Faruk:                       you have ruled in this household for a long time, not more. From today,                                    sister-in-law will rule the household whom you have kept like servant.  Modhu is killed in the movement of ‘want rice, want clothes and want to live with rights’. Nationalism is expressed in the cinema at the beginning with the points ‘a country, a family, a key-ring, a movement, a film’. Many songs have been used to show unity in the film. O Amar Shwapno Jhora Akulkora Jonmovumi (Oh my dreamy motherland who made me devoted to her) song is started in the beginning of the film. Amor Ekushe (Immortal Twenty First), song of Provat Feri ‘Amar Bhaier Rokte Rangano Ekushe February Ami Ki Bhulite Pari?’ (Can I forget the Twenty First February incarnadined by the blood of my brothers?) have been used in the film as the symbol of nationalism. For the first time, Zahir Raihan has used the famous song by Rabindranath Tagore in the film to inspire the people about the independence of Bangladesh. ‘Amar Sonar Bangla, Ami Tomai Bhalobashi (My Bengal of gold, I love you) is used to show inspiration to the Bengalis. ‘Karar Oi Louho Kopat .. Bhenge Fel Korre Lopat’ song has been used to increase the race of movement. ‘Dao, Dao, Dao Duniar Joto Goribke Aj Jagie Dao’ rebellious song has been used to unite the people of different class, different religion and of different views. Nationalism among the Bengali people is increased day by day. They become conscious about their freedom and the independence of Bangladesh. The main target of the film was to inspire the people to increase their consciousness about independence. General Rao Farman Ali watches the film in a screening and told Zahir Raihan that ‘I will see you’. Pakistan government at first did not allow displaying the cinema among the mass people so that they can see it and become conscious about independence. But they were bound to release the movie by the pressure of mass people.     Conclusion:  In the conclusion, the film JIbon Theke Neya is directed inspiring of Bengali Language Movement. Benagli Language Movement is the one of the main symbols to raise nationalism among the people. Zahir Raihan directed this film to inspire the people of Bangladesh to become conscious about the independence of Bangladesh. So, he showed dare to direct this kind of third cinema under the colonized country. Like he has showed the injustice and oppression, he has showed the approaches to become independent from colonizers. He showed public problematic through a domestic point of view so that the mass people easily understand the film and get the main message of the film.  References  Jibon Theke Neya: Cinema that reflects life (2017). Daily Asian Age. Retrieved from  Afsana Aziz Nitol (2017), Jibon Theke Neya, an emblem of political satire. The Daily Observer.  Farjana Liakat (2019),  ‘Jibon Theke Neya', an exposure of authority. Prothom Alo.  Christian Metz (1974), Film Language. (P.47)  Peter Wollen (1969), Signs and Meaning in the Cinema.  Daniel Chandler (2001), Semiotics: The Basics.  Shome, R & Hedge, R (2002), Postcolonial approaches to communication: charting the terrain, engaging the intersections.  Sandra Ponzanesi, Marguerite Waller (2012), Postcolonial Cinema Studies.  Edward Said (1978), Orientalism.  Films Cited  Zahir Raihan (Director & Producer) Jibon Theke Neya (1970)  Mrinal Sen (Director) D. S. Pictures (Producer) Calcutta 71 (1971)
Rawshan Jamil in Jibon Theke Neya (1970) 

Power in Jibon Theke Neya:
You have a lot of power. But you cannot take it for a life time if you are tyrannical. Jibon Theke Neya is a political film that expresses Bengali nationalism. This film delivers two kinds of statements one is inside the house and other outside the house; domestic and public. The women are struggling inside the house to take over the power and the men are struggling for their rights, their democracy, independence and freedom. So, there are revolutionary activities inside the house and in the public at large meaning. Zahir Raihan makes its ending through two family’s activities. In one side, Anwar Hossaain and his sisters are protesting characters. On the other hand the dictator woman’s house, the members are silent and oppressed members. But in the last stage we see all the members are protesting characters except the dictator lady. No one can tolerate the oppression of the autocratic lady’s rule in the house. So, the two brothers get married so that the key ring is transferred and peace comes to their house. But desire of power is eternal to the dictator lady. So, she conspired to kill her sister-in-law to get the power. We can understand her oppression and abuse of power through her dialogues.

Woman:   Where have you been in so early in the morning like a thief on bare feet?
Faruk:      As today is the 21st February, I went to a Provat Feri.
Woman:   21st February? What type of thing is this?
Faruk:       Don’t you really know what is 21st February?
Woman:   I don’t need to know. It seems like a barbarian you danced on bare feet on the whole  
                  street, didn’t you? Listen, knowing that these of thing I can’t tolerate why did you go
                   there? Remember, if you go again there, I’ll close down your study!

This is one kind of proof that how a sister behaves with her brother. And she does not know what 21st February is. Only a dictator can speak in such a way. Actually, she symbolizes the political dictator ruler of then East Pakistan Ayub Khan. The lady’s characterization has been expressed based on the West Pakistani military dictatorship of Ayub Khan from 1958 to 1969. The dictator lady’s character will be displayed through anther her dominated activities on her servants. The male servant Keramot has spent much oil. So,

Woman:             The price of milk and oil is being cut off from your salary.
Woman:             who has taken this glass here? Haven’t I told hundredth days no one will bring
                            this glass from my home, if you touch it any more, I told, I will cut off your 
                            hand.
Not only this but also she does not stay behind oppressing her husband when he sings on the roof. He cannot sing song inside the house for her wife’s oppression.

Woman:              Noh, after breaking the tabla and harmonium a lot of times, cannot you
                             understand that singing in this household is forbidden?
Woman:                Ah ha ha ha! What my truthful husband! When you get obstacle telling a lie,
                               you don’t feel shy eating my brother’s earning sitting in this house? When my
                               brother is an advocate, you rather can do clerkship of him. Either you will do
                               clerkship from tomorrow neither the whole day will stand for clients under  
                               the banyan tree. You cannot sing.
Dictator Lady’s brother Anisur Rahman earns well at the advocacy profession. But he is not also free from her oppression. He starts smoking inside the room.

Woman:                What is the matter at last you are starting smoking? Today smoking, tomorrow
                               wine another day perhaps will see card chat. Did I spoil these years
                               behind you for this? As if I do not see smoking from tomorrow.

The family members cannot speak against her. If anyone does that, the dictator lady shows her power upon them. In the film once her husband affixes the poster over the wall of the house and all the members have to tolerate her oppression. ‘No autocracy’, ‘have to give singing right’, ‘must have to give husband’s right’ these points are written on the poster. 
Woman:               Keramot, Anis, Faruk, what are these? Who has affixed them? Who? Who?
                           How dare he? Who has affixed them? Why doesn’t reply? I gave an hour over
                           whose walls the posters are affixed will be cleared through water. Otherwise,
                           your rice, breakfast and entering into this house will be closed down from today.  

For taking ruling power of the house the dictator lady can do everything. She always gets fear that when her ruling power is transferring. So, she was not agreed to make marry to her brother at the first time. But when her brothers by force marry to take ruling power (the key ring) over new bride, she is bound to give the power over her. But at first she does not let the new married husband wife to unite at their room.

Woman:              That is not good don’t I understand? If I let her to unite with him today, from     
                            tomorrow laughing will be started, from the next day house’s matter will be
                             come out, then will see taking the key ring of this household from me will tied  
                             up at the fringe of his wife. Remember, it’s my house. I must do what is
                             needed to keep in hand the key ring.
In Jibon theke Neya cinema, Zahir Raihan has given the total power upon the autocratic lady. So, the family members or anyone do not get power to speak against her. But a new hope is kept in nationalism chapter where the women members struggle inside the house and men members outside the house. We discuss it in the nationalism part.

Symbolism, Power and Nationalism in Jibon Theke Neya (1970)  Md. Robiul Islam  Abstract: This is a critical film review of the film Jibon Theke Neya (1970) directed by Zahir Raihan. The review will help to understand the metaphorical meaning of the film. This review argues that the symbolic characterization of the film indicates the power and nationalism for an independent country ‘Bangladesh’. This analysis employs semiotic cinema theory and post colonial theory as the approaches to establish the argument.     Key Words: Symbolism, Power, Nationalism  “Your wife is a great politician, she has done this to get the bunch of keys”….                                                                                                                          ____ Marriage-broker  “Keep in mind, it’s my house. I will do what is needed to keep in hand the bunch of keys”…                                                                                                                             ____Lady Dictator  “Modhu, this soil is mine this soil belongs to my land, Modhu. You, I and all others were born on this soil (….) we live on this soil, and this soil is so adorable like my mother, so sacred. I don’t want this golden soil of my golden land to be tarnished that is why I always speak about my country, about soil of my land.”                                                                                                                            ____Anwar Hossain        Jibon Theke Neya (1970) is a political satire based on the Bengali Language Movement under the rule of Pakistan. Metaphorically and symbolically power and nationalism have been expressed in this cinema. Director Zahir Raihan has characterized it through an autocratic woman (Rawshan Jamil) of a family who is the political dictator and symbolizes of Ayub Khan in East Pakistan. On the other hand others have been characterized as protesting characters. Nationalism is expressed through their speech and activities.     From Previous Literature:  There are no international journals or articles about Jibon Theke Neya (1970). But few notable works about this film has been done. For example; Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bangladesh publishes an article about the film titled “Jibon Thekey Neya (Glimpses of Life, 1970): The First Political Film in Pre-Liberation Bangladesh and A cinematic metaphor for nationalist concerns” by Fahmida Akhter, Assistant Professor, Department of Drama and Dramatics, Jahangirnagar University. [Vol. 59(2), 2014, pp.291-303] But there is no inner connotation meaning or indefinite argument of the article. She only writes about the explanation of the cinema and some codes of cinema that are used in the film that indicates the nationality and Bengali’s cultural program codes. Besides, the Daily Star reports about it titled ‘Zahir Raihan and the making of Jibon Thekey Neya’ by Naznin Tithi. [19 August, 2017]  She only writes about the film making, releasing, and censor board and cinema explanation a few. The Daily Asian Age reports about it as titled ‘Jibon Theke Neya: Cinema that reflects life’ [6 November, 2017]. But it explains a short introduction of the cinema only. Daily Observer writes about it as titled ‘Jibon Theke Neya, an emblem of political satire’ by Afsana Aziz Nitol [23 March, 2017]. Here the film has been explained on the perspective of metaphor and about nationalism .The Daily Prothom Alo writes about it as titled ‘Jibon Theke Neya’, an exposure of authority’ by Farzana Liakat [25 March, 219]. This article expresses some inner explanation of the cinema and about the release of the film. It also discusses about the nationality and this kind of political film is very tough to be released under colonial regime.     Theoretical Framework:  This study employs semiotic cinema theory and pos colonial approaches to understand the metaphorical characterization and the metaphorical development of the film. It will help to understand how the symbolism, power and nationalism have been expressed metaphorically. To study the film, Ferdinand de Saussure’s semiotics, Metz and Peter Wollen’s theory, Daniel Chandler’s theory and post colonial cinema theory will be used to understand it.     The Key Ring and Symbolism:  In Jibon Theke Neya (1970), there are many important signs have been used to express the film as metaphorical film. The key ring is one of them. The matchmaker in the film tells that the key ring is the power of dictator lady. Thus her husband can know that if the key ring is transferred from one hand to another, tow will rule in the household and the dictatorship will be vanished. So, here the key ring is the main symbol in the film and it is used as metaphorically in the film. It is the main power of the household. Besides, there are other symbols that have been used also metaphorically. For example; a glass with poison that expresses conspiracy, a bell metal bowl and plate with changing sound express tyrannical activities and a jumping koi fish expresses life without water under the dictator’s rule. Besides, there are some alphabetical sings have been used in the film. Different kinds of posters, writings, ‘Ekhushe February in Bengali language (21st February), Shahid Minar (Martyred Monument), flower, bare feet, new born baby ‘Mukti’ of Faruk and Bithi that expresses a new hope and many have been used here. According to Ferdinand de Saussure sign is the total of signifier and signified. Here signifiers are image of these symbols and sound on the other hand signified is the concept that comes in mind hearing the sign. All the different signs have their own connotative meaning. We will discuss it later. Christian Metz and Peter Wollen used the concept of semiotics to study cinema. They argue that ‘shots are the signs in cinema. This is called short circuit sign because the signifier and the signified are almost identical in cinema sign (shot).’ In the film Jibon Theke Neya (1970) all the symbols are identical. They always express something metaphorical meaning. We see the first shot of the film where Anwar Hossain writes ‘Ekhushe February’ (21st February) on a poster that is also identical. It expresses Bengali language speaking people. It is also an important symbol in the film. But the key ring is the main symbol to identify the connotative meaning. Christian Metz said that it is not because cinema is language that it can such fine stories, but rather it has become language it has told such fine stories.[Metz, Film Language, p.47]. Zahir Raihan’s cinematic styles is less important that its message because it has a fine story. It expresses Bengali nationalism with the above signs. Films manage to communicate meaning in two different manners. One denotative meaning and the other is connotative meaning. In the film there exist the two meanings. In denotative meaning, we see the image, hear the sound and easily know the signs of the cinema. But in connotative meaning, we have to explore the implicit meaning of the signs. Connotative meaning expresses the metaphorical meaning of the signs. Thus the film expresses the metaphorical meaning with the help of connotative meaning of the signs. In semiotics theory connotative meaning has two axes for example, Paradigmatic connotation and Syntagmatic connotation. We will analyze the whole film with an important symbol for example key ring. It is the paradigmatic connotation and how to present it is syntagmatic connotation. Cinematic signs have three kinds of orders that Peter Wollen suggested in his book ‘Signs and meaning in the cinema (1969). Jibon Theke Neya film covers all the orders here for example icon, index and symbol. We discuss about the posters as icon of the film and Amor Ekushe (Immortal Twenty First), Alponas (geometric flowery design), Krishnachura trees and Shahid Minar (Martyred Monument) are the index of the film that have directly relationship with Bengali Language Movement, in 1952. Women wearing Shakhas indicates the conventional symbol in the film. This indicates Hindu religion in the film. The Hindus and Muslims go to martyred monument to with flowers to respect them on bare feet. We also can know the psychological condition of a man or woman. We can know the hotness and coolness by index and symbol. We can guess the psychological state of the hot tempered dictator lady by index and symbol. On the other hand the positive state or cool mind state is revealed of two sisters and two brothers. So, index in cinema is very important to understand the relationship of coolness and hotness of human psychological state. Daniel Chanlder (2001) in his book ‘Semiotics the Basics’ said that codes organize signs into meaningful systems which correlate signifiers and signifies through the structural forms of syntagms and paradigms. Stuart Hall said that there is no intelligible discourse without the operation of codes. Actually three kinds of codes are used in cinema. In Jibon Theke Neya movie, the codes are used precisely. Now we will find the metaphorical meaning through the codes and also know the types of codes. Social codes are divided into several types of codes. For example, verbal codes, bodily codes, commodity codes, behavioral codes. In verbal codes, we see only the dictator lady speaks about her power and wants to dominate all time. The dominated member of the family cannot talk about their rights. In bodily codes, for example, lady’s husband tells his brother in-law shoutedly about Shathi so that Lady cannot know the bodily expression from other room that,  ‘Deadly, deadly, women are deadly’.  But he silently and bodily tells his brother-in-law that,  ‘You don’t listen to my words’  We can know the fashions, clothes of Anisur Rahman a lawyer, Faruk, Bithi students, the matchmaker, police, Anwar Hossain, the dictator lady and all others. We also see the cars when Anwar Hossain goes to jail and newly married Shathi goes to her husband’s house with different cars at the same time. These commodity codes express the melodramatic scenes. In the second stage, the use of painting, romanticism between Faruk and Bithi on the other hand Anisur and Shathi, the realism of slogan and meeting and protests are all of textual codes. The posters (Textual codes) are also expressing the revolutionary state. The last stage, interpretative codes are perceptual and ideological codes. We can know the perception of human psychology through perceptual codes for example, the character’s ear, eye, nose and lips. What they hear and what they listen. In the film the dictator lady only speaks and the other members cannot speak only they hear through their ears and see through their eyes. Through ideological codes, we can understand and think any kind of ism or ideology for example on the perspective of this film; racism, socialism, nationalism and power. The ideology of this kind of subject comes to our mind and can know that kind of ideas.  Power in Jibon Theke Neya:  You have a lot of power. But you cannot take it for a life time if you are tyrannical. Jibon Theke Neya is a political film that expresses Bengali nationalism. This film delivers two kinds of statements one is inside the house and other outside the house; domestic and public. The women are struggling inside the house to take over the power and the men are struggling for their rights, their democracy, independence and freedom. So, there are revolutionary activities inside the house and in the public at large meaning. Zahir Raihan makes its ending through two family’s activities. In one side, Anwar Hossaain and his sisters are protesting characters. On the other hand the dictator woman’s house, the members are silent and oppressed members. But in the last stage we see all the members are protesting characters except the dictator lady. No one can tolerate the oppression of the autocratic lady’s rule in the house. So, the two brothers get married so that the key ring is transferred and peace comes to their house. But desire of power is eternal to the dictator lady. So, she conspired to kill her sister-in-law to get the power. We can understand her oppression and abuse of power through her dialogues.     Woman:   Where have you been in so early in the morning like a thief on bare feet?  Faruk:      As today is the 21st February, I went to a Provat Feri.  Woman:   21st February? What type of thing is this?  Faruk:       Don’t you really know what is 21st February?  Woman:   I don’t need to know. It seems like a barbarian you danced on bare feet on the whole                      street, didn’t you? Listen, knowing that these of thing I can’t tolerate why did you go                     there? Remember, if you go again there, I’ll close down your study!     This is one kind of proof that how a sister behaves with her brother. And she does not know what 21st February is. Only a dictator can speak in such a way. Actually, she symbolizes the political dictator ruler of then East Pakistan Ayub Khan. The lady’s characterization has been expressed based on the West Pakistani military dictatorship of Ayub Khan from 1958 to 1969. The dictator lady’s character will be displayed through anther her dominated activities on her servants. The male servant Keramot has spent much oil. So,     Woman:             The price of milk and oil is being cut off from your salary.  Woman:             who has taken this glass here? Haven’t I told hundredth days no one will bring                              this glass from my home, if you touch it any more, I told, I will cut off your                               hand.  Not only this but also she does not stay behind oppressing her husband when he sings on the roof. He cannot sing song inside the house for her wife’s oppression.     Woman:              Noh, after breaking the tabla and harmonium a lot of times, cannot you                               understand that singing in this household is forbidden?  Woman:                Ah ha ha ha! What my truthful husband! When you get obstacle telling a lie,                                 you don’t feel shy eating my brother’s earning sitting in this house? When my                                 brother is an advocate, you rather can do clerkship of him. Either you will do                                 clerkship from tomorrow neither the whole day will stand for clients under                                   the banyan tree. You cannot sing.  Dictator Lady’s brother Anisur Rahman earns well at the advocacy profession. But he is not also free from her oppression. He starts smoking inside the room.     Woman:                What is the matter at last you are starting smoking? Today smoking, tomorrow                                 wine another day perhaps will see card chat. Did I spoil these years                                 behind you for this? As if I do not see smoking from tomorrow.     The family members cannot speak against her. If anyone does that, the dictator lady shows her power upon them. In the film once her husband affixes the poster over the wall of the house and all the members have to tolerate her oppression. ‘No autocracy’, ‘have to give singing right’, ‘must have to give husband’s right’ these points are written on the poster.   Woman:               Keramot, Anis, Faruk, what are these? Who has affixed them? Who? Who?                             How dare he? Who has affixed them? Why doesn’t reply? I gave an hour over                             whose walls the posters are affixed will be cleared through water. Otherwise,                             your rice, breakfast and entering into this house will be closed down from today.       For taking ruling power of the house the dictator lady can do everything. She always gets fear that when her ruling power is transferring. So, she was not agreed to make marry to her brother at the first time. But when her brothers by force marry to take ruling power (the key ring) over new bride, she is bound to give the power over her. But at first she does not let the new married husband wife to unite at their room.     Woman:              That is not good don’t I understand? If I let her to unite with him today, from                                   tomorrow laughing will be started, from the next day house’s matter will be                               come out, then will see taking the key ring of this household from me will tied                                 up at the fringe of his wife. Remember, it’s my house. I must do what is                               needed to keep in hand the key ring.  In Jibon theke Neya cinema, Zahir Raihan has given the total power upon the autocratic lady. So, the family members or anyone do not get power to speak against her. But a new hope is kept in nationalism chapter where the women members struggle inside the house and men members outside the house. We discuss it in the nationalism part.  Nationalism in Jibon Theke Neya:  The main hero of nationalism in the film is Anwar Hossain. Besides, Faruk, dictator woman’s husband (Khan Ataur Rahman), Modhu are the other protesting characters in the film. Never power is stayed to an autocratic person for the whole time. Its religion is changing or transferring. Either the ruler is autocratic or democratic he/she must leave the position. In the film Zahir Raihan upholds the autocratic woman as the character of the then Pakistani military dictator Ayub Khan. This film is directed inspired from Bangle Language Movement occurred in 1952. Bengali people have tolerated many oppression of the autocratic ruler Ayub Khan. And the film is the ardent proof. Bengali people never forget that kinds of oppression. Now we will discuss nationalism with the help of post colonial theory. As in 1970, Bangladesh was a colony of West Pakistan, it was then under colonialism. Indian subcontinent was under colonialism of Britain. But Indian subcontinent is divided between India and Pakistan in 1947. India becomes independent. But still Bangladesh was under Pakistan. It was a province and the West Pakistan started its oppression over East Pakistan (Now Bangladesh) through economically, politically, socially, culturally and religiously. West Pakistan deprived East Pakistan from every important sector. This film is the flaming proof of it. Now we will try to explain nationalism in Jibon Theke Neya through post colonial theory. Shome says that this is not a theory but an approach to understand the context of colonialism (2002).It explores colonial condition to critique it to explain why and how colonialism takes place and resistance to colonialism. Orientalism discusses about how the West creates a myth about the East, they defined they are superior they also think that the East is exotic, seductive, barbaric, criminal, dangerous.[Orientaism (1978) by Edward said] In the film West Pakistan thinks East Pakistan similarly. The autocratic lady’s activities are the example of it. For, she symbolizes the dictator ruler Ayub Khan of West Pakistan. Post colonialism sees race, class, gender sexuality and nationality within geopolitical arrangements and national or international histories. It also deals with the problematic which are no boundered by national border. In the film the protesting activities of the protesting characters are limited within the border. The whole world does not watch the oppressive activities of West Pakistan. In 1971, many countries also were against the independence of Bangladesh and they supported Pakistan. But one thing is very important in colonialism that is knowledge or education. Decolonization saw an influx of intelligentsia into institutions of higher education or knowledge in the United States and Britain. When most of the countries are decolonized from the colonialism, the other colonized people saw it and the earned higher education and knowledge helped them to understand about the oppression of colonizers and they wanted decolonization or freedom. The same condition was in Bangladesh. The higher educational people could understand and lifted about their rights and freedom. That is also noticeable in the film. The protesting characters specially, Anwar Hossain is a higher educated person. Faruk and Bithi are the Dhaka University students. Not only that the woman’s husband (Khan Ataur Rahman) and Anisur rahman are also higher educated persons. They easily can know about the oppression of the autocratic lady. So, they want freedom and rights. Post colonial theory discusses about nationality and national identity, deterritorializations of colonial and national power. We see the both colonial and national power in the film. But colonial power is ended up and national power is seen as a hope for living. Jibon Theke Neya (1970) is a third cinema. The main characteristics of third cinema are they are revolutionary cinema that would focus on the masses and express their political goals through innovative cinematic forms. Here message is more important than cinematic technique. Calcutta 71 (1971) directed by Mrinal Sen is also a third cinema. All the characteristics are remaining in the cinema. In post colonial cinema, can colonized people speak? No. they cannot speak against colonizers. But after that we see nationalism. Colonial power and nationalism go in the parallel way. In one side we see colonial power and on the other side we see national power and colonial power is defeated by national power. National power is very strong.  Anwar Hossain:             What I have got and what I have given if I calculate this, I cannot love                                         country. You must love country selflessly. Who are busy with debt and                                         due, are destroying.  In colonized country poverty is seen everywhere as the colonizers deprive colonized people from everything food, clothes and basics needs.  Anwar:                  Why don’t you understand, Modhu, that it is our life? Where the life is tired                               struggling with poverty, thinking the issue of marriage is wrong.     One day in this Bengal there were rice fulfilled in the granary, fishes in the ponds and the golden land were fulfilled with golden crops. But now they are struggling with poverty. The domestic and public struggling against autocracy is prevailing in the parallel way. When the country is filled with a lot of problems, the house is also facing with problems.     Khan Ataur Rahman:    Brother, I want to know a word means wn advice.  Anwar Hoassin:             What?  Khan Ataur Rahman:    It means, you do movement being injustice and oppression. You do                                          meeting, protest, affix posters. But suppose, if oppression and injustice                                         are at home, what should do there?  Anwar Hossain:             Country and house these are similar. Country is at large and house is in                                         small meaning. Like movement is needed against wrong and oppression                                        in country, you have to do movement inside the house.  When oppression is extreme upon a nation by colonizers, the nation finds its solution through nationalism. Nationalism is found through movement, affixing poster about basic needs being united with culture. They struggle for freedom, rights, independence.  Faruk:                        who said it is your household? It is ours.  Woman:                      what? What? How dare you? Get out from here.  Faruk:                         you will get out? Why will I go?  Woman:                     what? A large word in a tiny mouth?  Faruk:                         Careful, you won’t do that, what’s younger?  Huh, you are oppressing on                                      elder brother getting soft minded. But showing temper with me, there is                                    danger.  Faruk:                       you have ruled in this household for a long time, not more. From today,                                    sister-in-law will rule the household whom you have kept like servant.  Modhu is killed in the movement of ‘want rice, want clothes and want to live with rights’. Nationalism is expressed in the cinema at the beginning with the points ‘a country, a family, a key-ring, a movement, a film’. Many songs have been used to show unity in the film. O Amar Shwapno Jhora Akulkora Jonmovumi (Oh my dreamy motherland who made me devoted to her) song is started in the beginning of the film. Amor Ekushe (Immortal Twenty First), song of Provat Feri ‘Amar Bhaier Rokte Rangano Ekushe February Ami Ki Bhulite Pari?’ (Can I forget the Twenty First February incarnadined by the blood of my brothers?) have been used in the film as the symbol of nationalism. For the first time, Zahir Raihan has used the famous song by Rabindranath Tagore in the film to inspire the people about the independence of Bangladesh. ‘Amar Sonar Bangla, Ami Tomai Bhalobashi (My Bengal of gold, I love you) is used to show inspiration to the Bengalis. ‘Karar Oi Louho Kopat .. Bhenge Fel Korre Lopat’ song has been used to increase the race of movement. ‘Dao, Dao, Dao Duniar Joto Goribke Aj Jagie Dao’ rebellious song has been used to unite the people of different class, different religion and of different views. Nationalism among the Bengali people is increased day by day. They become conscious about their freedom and the independence of Bangladesh. The main target of the film was to inspire the people to increase their consciousness about independence. General Rao Farman Ali watches the film in a screening and told Zahir Raihan that ‘I will see you’. Pakistan government at first did not allow displaying the cinema among the mass people so that they can see it and become conscious about independence. But they were bound to release the movie by the pressure of mass people.     Conclusion:  In the conclusion, the film JIbon Theke Neya is directed inspiring of Bengali Language Movement. Benagli Language Movement is the one of the main symbols to raise nationalism among the people. Zahir Raihan directed this film to inspire the people of Bangladesh to become conscious about the independence of Bangladesh. So, he showed dare to direct this kind of third cinema under the colonized country. Like he has showed the injustice and oppression, he has showed the approaches to become independent from colonizers. He showed public problematic through a domestic point of view so that the mass people easily understand the film and get the main message of the film.  References  Jibon Theke Neya: Cinema that reflects life (2017). Daily Asian Age. Retrieved from  Afsana Aziz Nitol (2017), Jibon Theke Neya, an emblem of political satire. The Daily Observer.  Farjana Liakat (2019),  ‘Jibon Theke Neya', an exposure of authority. Prothom Alo.  Christian Metz (1974), Film Language. (P.47)  Peter Wollen (1969), Signs and Meaning in the Cinema.  Daniel Chandler (2001), Semiotics: The Basics.  Shome, R & Hedge, R (2002), Postcolonial approaches to communication: charting the terrain, engaging the intersections.  Sandra Ponzanesi, Marguerite Waller (2012), Postcolonial Cinema Studies.  Edward Said (1978), Orientalism.  Films Cited  Zahir Raihan (Director & Producer) Jibon Theke Neya (1970)  Mrinal Sen (Director) D. S. Pictures (Producer) Calcutta 71 (1971)
Anwar Hossain and Other Political activists in Jibon Theke Neya (1970)

Nationalism in Jibon Theke Neya:
The main hero of nationalism in the film is Anwar Hossain. Besides, Faruk, dictator woman’s husband (Khan Ataur Rahman), Modhu are the other protesting characters in the film. Never power is stayed to an autocratic person for the whole time. Its religion is changing or transferring. Either the ruler is autocratic or democratic he/she must leave the position. In the film Zahir Raihan upholds the autocratic woman as the character of the then Pakistani military dictator Ayub Khan. This film is directed inspired from Bangle Language Movement occurred in 1952. Bengali people have tolerated many oppression of the autocratic ruler Ayub Khan. And the film is the ardent proof. Bengali people never forget that kinds of oppression. Now we will discuss nationalism with the help of post colonial theory. As in 1970, Bangladesh was a colony of West Pakistan, it was then under colonialism. Indian subcontinent was under colonialism of Britain. But Indian subcontinent is divided between India and Pakistan in 1947. India becomes independent. But still Bangladesh was under Pakistan. It was a province and the West Pakistan started its oppression over East Pakistan (Now Bangladesh) through economically, politically, socially, culturally and religiously. West Pakistan deprived East Pakistan from every important sector. This film is the flaming proof of it. Now we will try to explain nationalism in Jibon Theke Neya through post colonial theory. Shome says that this is not a theory but an approach to understand the context of colonialism (2002).It explores colonial condition to critique it to explain why and how colonialism takes place and resistance to colonialism. Orientalism discusses about how the West creates a myth about the East, they defined they are superior they also think that the East is exotic, seductive, barbaric, criminal, dangerous.[Orientaism (1978) by Edward said] In the film West Pakistan thinks East Pakistan similarly. The autocratic lady’s activities are the example of it. For, she symbolizes the dictator ruler Ayub Khan of West Pakistan. Post colonialism sees race, class, gender sexuality and nationality within geopolitical arrangements and national or international histories. It also deals with the problematic which are no boundered by national border. In the film the protesting activities of the protesting characters are limited within the border. The whole world does not watch the oppressive activities of West Pakistan. In 1971, many countries also were against the independence of Bangladesh and they supported Pakistan. But one thing is very important in colonialism that is knowledge or education. Decolonization saw an influx of intelligentsia into institutions of higher education or knowledge in the United States and Britain. When most of the countries are decolonized from the colonialism, the other colonized people saw it and the earned higher education and knowledge helped them to understand about the oppression of colonizers and they wanted decolonization or freedom. The same condition was in Bangladesh. The higher educational people could understand and lifted about their rights and freedom. That is also noticeable in the film. The protesting characters specially, Anwar Hossain is a higher educated person. Faruk and Bithi are the Dhaka University students. Not only that the woman’s husband (Khan Ataur Rahman) and Anisur rahman are also higher educated persons. They easily can know about the oppression of the autocratic lady. So, they want freedom and rights. Post colonial theory discusses about nationality and national identity, deterritorializations of colonial and national power. We see the both colonial and national power in the film. But colonial power is ended up and national power is seen as a hope for living. Jibon Theke Neya (1970) is a third cinema. The main characteristics of third cinema are they are revolutionary cinema that would focus on the masses and express their political goals through innovative cinematic forms. Here message is more important than cinematic technique. Calcutta 71 (1971) directed by Mrinal Sen is also a third cinema. All the characteristics are remaining in the cinema. In post colonial cinema, can colonized people speak? No. they cannot speak against colonizers. But after that we see nationalism. Colonial power and nationalism go in the parallel way. In one side we see colonial power and on the other side we see national power and colonial power is defeated by national power. National power is very strong.
Anwar Hossain:             What I have got and what I have given if I calculate this, I cannot love
                                       country. You must love country selflessly. Who are busy with debt and
                                       due, are destroying.
In colonized country poverty is seen everywhere as the colonizers deprive colonized people from everything food, clothes and basics needs.
Anwar:                  Why don’t you understand, Modhu, that it is our life? Where the life is tired
                             struggling with poverty, thinking the issue of marriage is wrong.

One day in this Bengal there were rice fulfilled in the granary, fishes in the ponds and the golden land were fulfilled with golden crops. But now they are struggling with poverty. The domestic and public struggling against autocracy is prevailing in the parallel way. When the country is filled with a lot of problems, the house is also facing with problems.

Khan Ataur Rahman:    Brother, I want to know a word means wn advice.
Anwar Hoassin:             What?
Khan Ataur Rahman:    It means, you do movement being injustice and oppression. You do
                                        meeting, protest, affix posters. But suppose, if oppression and injustice
                                       are at home, what should do there?
Anwar Hossain:             Country and house these are similar. Country is at large and house is in
                                       small meaning. Like movement is needed against wrong and oppression
                                      in country, you have to do movement inside the house.
When oppression is extreme upon a nation by colonizers, the nation finds its solution through nationalism. Nationalism is found through movement, affixing poster about basic needs being united with culture. They struggle for freedom, rights, independence.
Faruk:                        who said it is your household? It is ours.
Woman:                      what? What? How dare you? Get out from here.
Faruk:                         you will get out? Why will I go?
Woman:                     what? A large word in a tiny mouth?
Faruk:                         Careful, you won’t do that, what’s younger?  Huh, you are oppressing on 
                                   elder brother getting soft minded. But showing temper with me, there is
                                  danger.
Faruk:                       you have ruled in this household for a long time, not more. From today,
                                  sister-in-law will rule the household whom you have kept like servant.
Modhu is killed in the movement of ‘want rice, want clothes and want to live with rights’. Nationalism is expressed in the cinema at the beginning with the points ‘a country, a family, a key-ring, a movement, a film’. Many songs have been used to show unity in the film. O Amar Shwapno Jhora Akulkora Jonmovumi (Oh my dreamy motherland who made me devoted to her) song is started in the beginning of the film. Amor Ekushe (Immortal Twenty First), song of Provat Feri ‘Amar Bhaier Rokte Rangano Ekushe February Ami Ki Bhulite Pari?’ (Can I forget the Twenty First February incarnadined by the blood of my brothers?) have been used in the film as the symbol of nationalism. For the first time, Zahir Raihan has used the famous song by Rabindranath Tagore in the film to inspire the people about the independence of Bangladesh. ‘Amar Sonar Bangla, Ami Tomai Bhalobashi (My Bengal of gold, I love you) is used to show inspiration to the Bengalis. ‘Karar Oi Louho Kopat .. Bhenge Fel Korre Lopat’ song has been used to increase the race of movement. ‘Dao, Dao, Dao Duniar Joto Goribke Aj Jagie Dao’ rebellious song has been used to unite the people of different class, different religion and of different views. Nationalism among the Bengali people is increased day by day. They become conscious about their freedom and the independence of Bangladesh. The main target of the film was to inspire the people to increase their consciousness about independence. General Rao Farman Ali watches the film in a screening and told Zahir Raihan that ‘I will see you’. Pakistan government at first did not allow displaying the cinema among the mass people so that they can see it and become conscious about independence. But they were bound to release the movie by the pressure of mass people.
 
Symbolism, Power and Nationalism in Jibon Theke Neya (1970)  Md. Robiul Islam  Abstract: This is a critical film review of the film Jibon Theke Neya (1970) directed by Zahir Raihan. The review will help to understand the metaphorical meaning of the film. This review argues that the symbolic characterization of the film indicates the power and nationalism for an independent country ‘Bangladesh’. This analysis employs semiotic cinema theory and post colonial theory as the approaches to establish the argument.     Key Words: Symbolism, Power, Nationalism  “Your wife is a great politician, she has done this to get the bunch of keys”….                                                                                                                          ____ Marriage-broker  “Keep in mind, it’s my house. I will do what is needed to keep in hand the bunch of keys”…                                                                                                                             ____Lady Dictator  “Modhu, this soil is mine this soil belongs to my land, Modhu. You, I and all others were born on this soil (….) we live on this soil, and this soil is so adorable like my mother, so sacred. I don’t want this golden soil of my golden land to be tarnished that is why I always speak about my country, about soil of my land.”                                                                                                                            ____Anwar Hossain        Jibon Theke Neya (1970) is a political satire based on the Bengali Language Movement under the rule of Pakistan. Metaphorically and symbolically power and nationalism have been expressed in this cinema. Director Zahir Raihan has characterized it through an autocratic woman (Rawshan Jamil) of a family who is the political dictator and symbolizes of Ayub Khan in East Pakistan. On the other hand others have been characterized as protesting characters. Nationalism is expressed through their speech and activities.     From Previous Literature:  There are no international journals or articles about Jibon Theke Neya (1970). But few notable works about this film has been done. For example; Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bangladesh publishes an article about the film titled “Jibon Thekey Neya (Glimpses of Life, 1970): The First Political Film in Pre-Liberation Bangladesh and A cinematic metaphor for nationalist concerns” by Fahmida Akhter, Assistant Professor, Department of Drama and Dramatics, Jahangirnagar University. [Vol. 59(2), 2014, pp.291-303] But there is no inner connotation meaning or indefinite argument of the article. She only writes about the explanation of the cinema and some codes of cinema that are used in the film that indicates the nationality and Bengali’s cultural program codes. Besides, the Daily Star reports about it titled ‘Zahir Raihan and the making of Jibon Thekey Neya’ by Naznin Tithi. [19 August, 2017]  She only writes about the film making, releasing, and censor board and cinema explanation a few. The Daily Asian Age reports about it as titled ‘Jibon Theke Neya: Cinema that reflects life’ [6 November, 2017]. But it explains a short introduction of the cinema only. Daily Observer writes about it as titled ‘Jibon Theke Neya, an emblem of political satire’ by Afsana Aziz Nitol [23 March, 2017]. Here the film has been explained on the perspective of metaphor and about nationalism .The Daily Prothom Alo writes about it as titled ‘Jibon Theke Neya’, an exposure of authority’ by Farzana Liakat [25 March, 219]. This article expresses some inner explanation of the cinema and about the release of the film. It also discusses about the nationality and this kind of political film is very tough to be released under colonial regime.     Theoretical Framework:  This study employs semiotic cinema theory and pos colonial approaches to understand the metaphorical characterization and the metaphorical development of the film. It will help to understand how the symbolism, power and nationalism have been expressed metaphorically. To study the film, Ferdinand de Saussure’s semiotics, Metz and Peter Wollen’s theory, Daniel Chandler’s theory and post colonial cinema theory will be used to understand it.     The Key Ring and Symbolism:  In Jibon Theke Neya (1970), there are many important signs have been used to express the film as metaphorical film. The key ring is one of them. The matchmaker in the film tells that the key ring is the power of dictator lady. Thus her husband can know that if the key ring is transferred from one hand to another, tow will rule in the household and the dictatorship will be vanished. So, here the key ring is the main symbol in the film and it is used as metaphorically in the film. It is the main power of the household. Besides, there are other symbols that have been used also metaphorically. For example; a glass with poison that expresses conspiracy, a bell metal bowl and plate with changing sound express tyrannical activities and a jumping koi fish expresses life without water under the dictator’s rule. Besides, there are some alphabetical sings have been used in the film. Different kinds of posters, writings, ‘Ekhushe February in Bengali language (21st February), Shahid Minar (Martyred Monument), flower, bare feet, new born baby ‘Mukti’ of Faruk and Bithi that expresses a new hope and many have been used here. According to Ferdinand de Saussure sign is the total of signifier and signified. Here signifiers are image of these symbols and sound on the other hand signified is the concept that comes in mind hearing the sign. All the different signs have their own connotative meaning. We will discuss it later. Christian Metz and Peter Wollen used the concept of semiotics to study cinema. They argue that ‘shots are the signs in cinema. This is called short circuit sign because the signifier and the signified are almost identical in cinema sign (shot).’ In the film Jibon Theke Neya (1970) all the symbols are identical. They always express something metaphorical meaning. We see the first shot of the film where Anwar Hossain writes ‘Ekhushe February’ (21st February) on a poster that is also identical. It expresses Bengali language speaking people. It is also an important symbol in the film. But the key ring is the main symbol to identify the connotative meaning. Christian Metz said that it is not because cinema is language that it can such fine stories, but rather it has become language it has told such fine stories.[Metz, Film Language, p.47]. Zahir Raihan’s cinematic styles is less important that its message because it has a fine story. It expresses Bengali nationalism with the above signs. Films manage to communicate meaning in two different manners. One denotative meaning and the other is connotative meaning. In the film there exist the two meanings. In denotative meaning, we see the image, hear the sound and easily know the signs of the cinema. But in connotative meaning, we have to explore the implicit meaning of the signs. Connotative meaning expresses the metaphorical meaning of the signs. Thus the film expresses the metaphorical meaning with the help of connotative meaning of the signs. In semiotics theory connotative meaning has two axes for example, Paradigmatic connotation and Syntagmatic connotation. We will analyze the whole film with an important symbol for example key ring. It is the paradigmatic connotation and how to present it is syntagmatic connotation. Cinematic signs have three kinds of orders that Peter Wollen suggested in his book ‘Signs and meaning in the cinema (1969). Jibon Theke Neya film covers all the orders here for example icon, index and symbol. We discuss about the posters as icon of the film and Amor Ekushe (Immortal Twenty First), Alponas (geometric flowery design), Krishnachura trees and Shahid Minar (Martyred Monument) are the index of the film that have directly relationship with Bengali Language Movement, in 1952. Women wearing Shakhas indicates the conventional symbol in the film. This indicates Hindu religion in the film. The Hindus and Muslims go to martyred monument to with flowers to respect them on bare feet. We also can know the psychological condition of a man or woman. We can know the hotness and coolness by index and symbol. We can guess the psychological state of the hot tempered dictator lady by index and symbol. On the other hand the positive state or cool mind state is revealed of two sisters and two brothers. So, index in cinema is very important to understand the relationship of coolness and hotness of human psychological state. Daniel Chanlder (2001) in his book ‘Semiotics the Basics’ said that codes organize signs into meaningful systems which correlate signifiers and signifies through the structural forms of syntagms and paradigms. Stuart Hall said that there is no intelligible discourse without the operation of codes. Actually three kinds of codes are used in cinema. In Jibon Theke Neya movie, the codes are used precisely. Now we will find the metaphorical meaning through the codes and also know the types of codes. Social codes are divided into several types of codes. For example, verbal codes, bodily codes, commodity codes, behavioral codes. In verbal codes, we see only the dictator lady speaks about her power and wants to dominate all time. The dominated member of the family cannot talk about their rights. In bodily codes, for example, lady’s husband tells his brother in-law shoutedly about Shathi so that Lady cannot know the bodily expression from other room that,  ‘Deadly, deadly, women are deadly’.  But he silently and bodily tells his brother-in-law that,  ‘You don’t listen to my words’  We can know the fashions, clothes of Anisur Rahman a lawyer, Faruk, Bithi students, the matchmaker, police, Anwar Hossain, the dictator lady and all others. We also see the cars when Anwar Hossain goes to jail and newly married Shathi goes to her husband’s house with different cars at the same time. These commodity codes express the melodramatic scenes. In the second stage, the use of painting, romanticism between Faruk and Bithi on the other hand Anisur and Shathi, the realism of slogan and meeting and protests are all of textual codes. The posters (Textual codes) are also expressing the revolutionary state. The last stage, interpretative codes are perceptual and ideological codes. We can know the perception of human psychology through perceptual codes for example, the character’s ear, eye, nose and lips. What they hear and what they listen. In the film the dictator lady only speaks and the other members cannot speak only they hear through their ears and see through their eyes. Through ideological codes, we can understand and think any kind of ism or ideology for example on the perspective of this film; racism, socialism, nationalism and power. The ideology of this kind of subject comes to our mind and can know that kind of ideas.  Power in Jibon Theke Neya:  You have a lot of power. But you cannot take it for a life time if you are tyrannical. Jibon Theke Neya is a political film that expresses Bengali nationalism. This film delivers two kinds of statements one is inside the house and other outside the house; domestic and public. The women are struggling inside the house to take over the power and the men are struggling for their rights, their democracy, independence and freedom. So, there are revolutionary activities inside the house and in the public at large meaning. Zahir Raihan makes its ending through two family’s activities. In one side, Anwar Hossaain and his sisters are protesting characters. On the other hand the dictator woman’s house, the members are silent and oppressed members. But in the last stage we see all the members are protesting characters except the dictator lady. No one can tolerate the oppression of the autocratic lady’s rule in the house. So, the two brothers get married so that the key ring is transferred and peace comes to their house. But desire of power is eternal to the dictator lady. So, she conspired to kill her sister-in-law to get the power. We can understand her oppression and abuse of power through her dialogues.     Woman:   Where have you been in so early in the morning like a thief on bare feet?  Faruk:      As today is the 21st February, I went to a Provat Feri.  Woman:   21st February? What type of thing is this?  Faruk:       Don’t you really know what is 21st February?  Woman:   I don’t need to know. It seems like a barbarian you danced on bare feet on the whole                      street, didn’t you? Listen, knowing that these of thing I can’t tolerate why did you go                     there? Remember, if you go again there, I’ll close down your study!     This is one kind of proof that how a sister behaves with her brother. And she does not know what 21st February is. Only a dictator can speak in such a way. Actually, she symbolizes the political dictator ruler of then East Pakistan Ayub Khan. The lady’s characterization has been expressed based on the West Pakistani military dictatorship of Ayub Khan from 1958 to 1969. The dictator lady’s character will be displayed through anther her dominated activities on her servants. The male servant Keramot has spent much oil. So,     Woman:             The price of milk and oil is being cut off from your salary.  Woman:             who has taken this glass here? Haven’t I told hundredth days no one will bring                              this glass from my home, if you touch it any more, I told, I will cut off your                               hand.  Not only this but also she does not stay behind oppressing her husband when he sings on the roof. He cannot sing song inside the house for her wife’s oppression.     Woman:              Noh, after breaking the tabla and harmonium a lot of times, cannot you                               understand that singing in this household is forbidden?  Woman:                Ah ha ha ha! What my truthful husband! When you get obstacle telling a lie,                                 you don’t feel shy eating my brother’s earning sitting in this house? When my                                 brother is an advocate, you rather can do clerkship of him. Either you will do                                 clerkship from tomorrow neither the whole day will stand for clients under                                   the banyan tree. You cannot sing.  Dictator Lady’s brother Anisur Rahman earns well at the advocacy profession. But he is not also free from her oppression. He starts smoking inside the room.     Woman:                What is the matter at last you are starting smoking? Today smoking, tomorrow                                 wine another day perhaps will see card chat. Did I spoil these years                                 behind you for this? As if I do not see smoking from tomorrow.     The family members cannot speak against her. If anyone does that, the dictator lady shows her power upon them. In the film once her husband affixes the poster over the wall of the house and all the members have to tolerate her oppression. ‘No autocracy’, ‘have to give singing right’, ‘must have to give husband’s right’ these points are written on the poster.   Woman:               Keramot, Anis, Faruk, what are these? Who has affixed them? Who? Who?                             How dare he? Who has affixed them? Why doesn’t reply? I gave an hour over                             whose walls the posters are affixed will be cleared through water. Otherwise,                             your rice, breakfast and entering into this house will be closed down from today.       For taking ruling power of the house the dictator lady can do everything. She always gets fear that when her ruling power is transferring. So, she was not agreed to make marry to her brother at the first time. But when her brothers by force marry to take ruling power (the key ring) over new bride, she is bound to give the power over her. But at first she does not let the new married husband wife to unite at their room.     Woman:              That is not good don’t I understand? If I let her to unite with him today, from                                   tomorrow laughing will be started, from the next day house’s matter will be                               come out, then will see taking the key ring of this household from me will tied                                 up at the fringe of his wife. Remember, it’s my house. I must do what is                               needed to keep in hand the key ring.  In Jibon theke Neya cinema, Zahir Raihan has given the total power upon the autocratic lady. So, the family members or anyone do not get power to speak against her. But a new hope is kept in nationalism chapter where the women members struggle inside the house and men members outside the house. We discuss it in the nationalism part.  Nationalism in Jibon Theke Neya:  The main hero of nationalism in the film is Anwar Hossain. Besides, Faruk, dictator woman’s husband (Khan Ataur Rahman), Modhu are the other protesting characters in the film. Never power is stayed to an autocratic person for the whole time. Its religion is changing or transferring. Either the ruler is autocratic or democratic he/she must leave the position. In the film Zahir Raihan upholds the autocratic woman as the character of the then Pakistani military dictator Ayub Khan. This film is directed inspired from Bangle Language Movement occurred in 1952. Bengali people have tolerated many oppression of the autocratic ruler Ayub Khan. And the film is the ardent proof. Bengali people never forget that kinds of oppression. Now we will discuss nationalism with the help of post colonial theory. As in 1970, Bangladesh was a colony of West Pakistan, it was then under colonialism. Indian subcontinent was under colonialism of Britain. But Indian subcontinent is divided between India and Pakistan in 1947. India becomes independent. But still Bangladesh was under Pakistan. It was a province and the West Pakistan started its oppression over East Pakistan (Now Bangladesh) through economically, politically, socially, culturally and religiously. West Pakistan deprived East Pakistan from every important sector. This film is the flaming proof of it. Now we will try to explain nationalism in Jibon Theke Neya through post colonial theory. Shome says that this is not a theory but an approach to understand the context of colonialism (2002).It explores colonial condition to critique it to explain why and how colonialism takes place and resistance to colonialism. Orientalism discusses about how the West creates a myth about the East, they defined they are superior they also think that the East is exotic, seductive, barbaric, criminal, dangerous.[Orientaism (1978) by Edward said] In the film West Pakistan thinks East Pakistan similarly. The autocratic lady’s activities are the example of it. For, she symbolizes the dictator ruler Ayub Khan of West Pakistan. Post colonialism sees race, class, gender sexuality and nationality within geopolitical arrangements and national or international histories. It also deals with the problematic which are no boundered by national border. In the film the protesting activities of the protesting characters are limited within the border. The whole world does not watch the oppressive activities of West Pakistan. In 1971, many countries also were against the independence of Bangladesh and they supported Pakistan. But one thing is very important in colonialism that is knowledge or education. Decolonization saw an influx of intelligentsia into institutions of higher education or knowledge in the United States and Britain. When most of the countries are decolonized from the colonialism, the other colonized people saw it and the earned higher education and knowledge helped them to understand about the oppression of colonizers and they wanted decolonization or freedom. The same condition was in Bangladesh. The higher educational people could understand and lifted about their rights and freedom. That is also noticeable in the film. The protesting characters specially, Anwar Hossain is a higher educated person. Faruk and Bithi are the Dhaka University students. Not only that the woman’s husband (Khan Ataur Rahman) and Anisur rahman are also higher educated persons. They easily can know about the oppression of the autocratic lady. So, they want freedom and rights. Post colonial theory discusses about nationality and national identity, deterritorializations of colonial and national power. We see the both colonial and national power in the film. But colonial power is ended up and national power is seen as a hope for living. Jibon Theke Neya (1970) is a third cinema. The main characteristics of third cinema are they are revolutionary cinema that would focus on the masses and express their political goals through innovative cinematic forms. Here message is more important than cinematic technique. Calcutta 71 (1971) directed by Mrinal Sen is also a third cinema. All the characteristics are remaining in the cinema. In post colonial cinema, can colonized people speak? No. they cannot speak against colonizers. But after that we see nationalism. Colonial power and nationalism go in the parallel way. In one side we see colonial power and on the other side we see national power and colonial power is defeated by national power. National power is very strong.  Anwar Hossain:             What I have got and what I have given if I calculate this, I cannot love                                         country. You must love country selflessly. Who are busy with debt and                                         due, are destroying.  In colonized country poverty is seen everywhere as the colonizers deprive colonized people from everything food, clothes and basics needs.  Anwar:                  Why don’t you understand, Modhu, that it is our life? Where the life is tired                               struggling with poverty, thinking the issue of marriage is wrong.     One day in this Bengal there were rice fulfilled in the granary, fishes in the ponds and the golden land were fulfilled with golden crops. But now they are struggling with poverty. The domestic and public struggling against autocracy is prevailing in the parallel way. When the country is filled with a lot of problems, the house is also facing with problems.     Khan Ataur Rahman:    Brother, I want to know a word means wn advice.  Anwar Hoassin:             What?  Khan Ataur Rahman:    It means, you do movement being injustice and oppression. You do                                          meeting, protest, affix posters. But suppose, if oppression and injustice                                         are at home, what should do there?  Anwar Hossain:             Country and house these are similar. Country is at large and house is in                                         small meaning. Like movement is needed against wrong and oppression                                        in country, you have to do movement inside the house.  When oppression is extreme upon a nation by colonizers, the nation finds its solution through nationalism. Nationalism is found through movement, affixing poster about basic needs being united with culture. They struggle for freedom, rights, independence.  Faruk:                        who said it is your household? It is ours.  Woman:                      what? What? How dare you? Get out from here.  Faruk:                         you will get out? Why will I go?  Woman:                     what? A large word in a tiny mouth?  Faruk:                         Careful, you won’t do that, what’s younger?  Huh, you are oppressing on                                      elder brother getting soft minded. But showing temper with me, there is                                    danger.  Faruk:                       you have ruled in this household for a long time, not more. From today,                                    sister-in-law will rule the household whom you have kept like servant.  Modhu is killed in the movement of ‘want rice, want clothes and want to live with rights’. Nationalism is expressed in the cinema at the beginning with the points ‘a country, a family, a key-ring, a movement, a film’. Many songs have been used to show unity in the film. O Amar Shwapno Jhora Akulkora Jonmovumi (Oh my dreamy motherland who made me devoted to her) song is started in the beginning of the film. Amor Ekushe (Immortal Twenty First), song of Provat Feri ‘Amar Bhaier Rokte Rangano Ekushe February Ami Ki Bhulite Pari?’ (Can I forget the Twenty First February incarnadined by the blood of my brothers?) have been used in the film as the symbol of nationalism. For the first time, Zahir Raihan has used the famous song by Rabindranath Tagore in the film to inspire the people about the independence of Bangladesh. ‘Amar Sonar Bangla, Ami Tomai Bhalobashi (My Bengal of gold, I love you) is used to show inspiration to the Bengalis. ‘Karar Oi Louho Kopat .. Bhenge Fel Korre Lopat’ song has been used to increase the race of movement. ‘Dao, Dao, Dao Duniar Joto Goribke Aj Jagie Dao’ rebellious song has been used to unite the people of different class, different religion and of different views. Nationalism among the Bengali people is increased day by day. They become conscious about their freedom and the independence of Bangladesh. The main target of the film was to inspire the people to increase their consciousness about independence. General Rao Farman Ali watches the film in a screening and told Zahir Raihan that ‘I will see you’. Pakistan government at first did not allow displaying the cinema among the mass people so that they can see it and become conscious about independence. But they were bound to release the movie by the pressure of mass people.     Conclusion:  In the conclusion, the film JIbon Theke Neya is directed inspiring of Bengali Language Movement. Benagli Language Movement is the one of the main symbols to raise nationalism among the people. Zahir Raihan directed this film to inspire the people of Bangladesh to become conscious about the independence of Bangladesh. So, he showed dare to direct this kind of third cinema under the colonized country. Like he has showed the injustice and oppression, he has showed the approaches to become independent from colonizers. He showed public problematic through a domestic point of view so that the mass people easily understand the film and get the main message of the film.  References  Jibon Theke Neya: Cinema that reflects life (2017). Daily Asian Age. Retrieved from  Afsana Aziz Nitol (2017), Jibon Theke Neya, an emblem of political satire. The Daily Observer.  Farjana Liakat (2019),  ‘Jibon Theke Neya', an exposure of authority. Prothom Alo.  Christian Metz (1974), Film Language. (P.47)  Peter Wollen (1969), Signs and Meaning in the Cinema.  Daniel Chandler (2001), Semiotics: The Basics.  Shome, R & Hedge, R (2002), Postcolonial approaches to communication: charting the terrain, engaging the intersections.  Sandra Ponzanesi, Marguerite Waller (2012), Postcolonial Cinema Studies.  Edward Said (1978), Orientalism.  Films Cited  Zahir Raihan (Director & Producer) Jibon Theke Neya (1970)  Mrinal Sen (Director) D. S. Pictures (Producer) Calcutta 71 (1971)
Zahir Raihan, Director of Jibon Theke Neya (1970)
Conclusion:
In the conclusion, the film JIbon Theke Neya is directed inspiring of Bengali Language Movement. Benagli Language Movement is the one of the main symbols to raise nationalism among the people. Zahir Raihan directed this film to inspire the people of Bangladesh to become conscious about the independence of Bangladesh. So, he showed dare to direct this kind of third cinema under the colonized country. Like he has showed the injustice and oppression, he has showed the approaches to become independent from colonizers. He showed public problematic through a domestic point of view so that the mass people easily understand the film and get the main message of the film.
References
Jibon Theke Neya: Cinema that reflects life (2017). Daily Asian Age. Retrieved from
Afsana Aziz Nitol (2017), Jibon Theke Neya, an emblem of political satire. The Daily Observer.
Farjana Liakat (2019),  ‘Jibon Theke Neya', an exposure of authority. Prothom Alo.
Christian Metz (1974), Film Language. (P.47)
Peter Wollen (1969), Signs and Meaning in the Cinema.
Daniel Chandler (2001), Semiotics: The Basics.
Shome, R & Hedge, R (2002), Postcolonial approaches to communication: charting the terrain, engaging the intersections.
Sandra Ponzanesi, Marguerite Waller (2012), Postcolonial Cinema Studies.
Edward Said (1978), Orientalism.
Films Cited
Zahir Raihan (Director & Producer) Jibon Theke Neya (1970)
Mrinal Sen (Director) D. S. Pictures (Producer) Calcutta 71 (1971)


SHARE THIS

2 comments:

  1. Impressive, I have never read such amazing movie review.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Thank you for your valuable comment. Stay close for more critical film review...

      Delete