Friday, May 17, 2019

Critical Review Essay On Padmaavat (2018)

Padmaavat, Not a Historical Film  Padmaavat is the most controversial film ever in India. The film is directed, co-produced, co-edited and music composed by Sanjay Leela Bhansali in 2018. It is the ninth highest-grossing film in India. Sanjay Leela Bhansali is very popular film director in India for his extra ordinary works. For example Devdas (2002), Goliyon Ki Rasleela Ram-Leela (2013, Bajirao Mastani (2015) are the best. Padmaavat is the film of highest amount of budget from his all films. It has achieved most criticisms from the film critics and public audiences.     Performers as characters of the film  There are many performers role played by of the characters in the film. But the most important performers as the characters of the film are;  Deepika Padukone as Rani Padmavati  Shahid Kapoor as Maharawal Ratan Singh  Ranveer Singh as Sultan Alauddin Khilji  Aditi Rao Hydari as Mehrunissa  Jim Sarbh as Malik Kafur   Anupriya Goenka as Nagmati  Ujjwal Chopra as Gora Singh     Plot Summery  The film is started with a sequence of Sultan Jalal-Uddin Khilji in Afghanistan. After, Khilji Dynasty is started in Delhi. Jala Uddin’s nephew Alauddin Khilji is the most powerful chief of the Khilji troops. He loots Devagiri, defeats the most powerful Mongols in a battle and after occupies Kara. The plot of the film is of 1303 AD medieval India. At the same time the king of Mewar journeys to Singhal to find out pearls for his wife Nagmati. In the jungle, the princess of Singhal is hunting deer. But unfortunately, her arrow is gone into king’s chest. She taks him into a cave and he recovers in her nursing. They fall in love with each other. At that time princess Padmavati was the most beautiful and skilled monarchy. Maharawal Ratan Singh, the king of Mewar finds out princess instead of pearls. The king of Singhal, Gandharvsen, marries his daughter with the king Ratan Singh. They come back to Chittor.     The people of Chittor celebrate the day for the pride of Chittor. Ratan Singh takes Radmavati to their courtier, Raghav Chetan to take blessing. But Ratan Singh banishes him for his fraudulence. On the other side, Alauddin Khilji satisfies his uncle’s mind taking the victories. He marries his daughter Mehrunissa with Alauddin. But after some days, Alauddin kills his uncle and with the help of slave Malik Kafur gifted by his uncle. Alauddin becomes the new sultan of Delhi. He fulfilled his every desire. When the courtier of Chittor, Raghav Chetan comes to the fort, he expresses the Sultan telling about the beauty of the queen Padmavati. Sultan Alauddin Khilji starts his journey with troops for Chittor to do a big war. In Chittor, many troops are killed by the technique of Ratan Singh but Alauddin does not go back to Delhi. At last staying there for six months, Alauddin Khilji himself goes to Ratan Singh’s fort to do friendship before leaving Chittor. But strategically, Alauddin takes Ratan Singh to Delhi so that Rani Padmavati surely comes to Delhi. Alauddin Khilji accepts all the conditions of Padmavati and kills the courtier. Padmavati journeys to Delhi with 800 men instead of maids. At the same time, Itat Khan tries to kill Alauddin with arrows mixing poison. But he escapes and later kills Itat Khan. Wounded Alauddin cannot meet Padmavati because Mehrunissa helps her to escape Ratan Singh. They flee away from the fort through a tunnel. A little battle is happened. Chief Gora Singh, Badal Singh and all the troops are killed but Padmavati and Ratan Singh reaches Chittor safely. The people of Chittor celebrate to get back their king praise to their queen to escape their king. But Alauddin Khilji takes huge troops in Chittor for a big battle. A battle is started between Alauddin Khilji and Ratan Singh. Ratan Singh is killed by Malik Kafur’s arrows. All the troops of Ratan Singh are killed. But Rani Padmavati orders all the women to perform Jauhar (mass self-immolation) closing the gate of the fort. All the women with Rani Padmavati and Nagmati sacrifice their life to protect their dignity.        Story Adaptation  The story of the film is adapted from an epic poem ‘Padmavat’ written by Sufi Poet Malik Muhammad Jayasi in 1540. He lived in Uttar Pradesh at that time. Epic Poem ‘Padmavat’ is written in the Hindustani language of Awadhi and originally in the Persian Nastaliq language. The poem is translated in many languages. There is a Bengali version too. It is a fictional poem about Alauddin Khilji’s desire about the queen Padmavati of Chittor. In this epic poem Alauddin Khilji and Maharawal Ratan Singh are the historical figures but Ratan Sen’s or ratan Singh’s wife queen Padmavati is a fictional character, not a historical character. During the second emperor of the Mughal Empire, Humayun (1530-1540) poet Malik Muhammad Jayasi wrote the poem. But he enlisted the matters in the poem of beginning of 14th century (1303 AD) when Sulatan Alauddin Khilji occupied Chittor. ‘Padmavat’ is the ultimate source of some other adaptation works. Albert Roussel directed Opera ‘Padmavat’ (1923) in Paris, France.  Besides, a Tamil film named ‘Chittor Rani Padmini’ (1963) was directed by Chitrapu Narayana Rao. A Hindi film ‘Maharani Padmini’ (1964) was directed by Jashwat Jhaveri in 1964. All the films have been directed adapting the poem story ‘Padmavat’.     Plot of the Poem  Gandharvsen was the king of Singhal. The princess of Singhal Padmavati was very beautiful. The women of Singhal was called Padmini specially they were beautiful and had four kinds of skill or quality. Padmavati had a talking parrot named Hiraman. Hiraman was very close friend to the princess, Padmavati. They together studied the Vedas, the Hindu scriptures. But the king of Singhal resented the parrot’s closeness to his daughter. So, he wanted to kill the parrot. But the parrot bade good bye to the princess and few away in the jungle. A bird catcher caught the parrot and sold it near the Chittor Empire to a Brahmin. The Brahmin took it to the king of Chittor Maharawal Ratan Sen. Ratan Sen was very fond of to the parrot because the parrot could talk sweetly. The parrot talked about the beauty of the princess of Singhal Ratan Sen started his journey to marry Padmavati with 16,000 followers with the parrot’s guide. They went to Singhal after crossing seven seas and Ratan Sen came to a temple and commenced austerities to seek Padmavati. Padmavati came to the temple after listening from the parrot but did not meet with the ascetic. She returned to the palace. Ratan Sen was very upset and committed to suicide. But he was interrupted by the deities Shiva and Parvati. On Shiva’s advice, they attack on the royal fortress of Singhal kingdom. But they are defeated and when Ratan Sen was about to be executed, the parrot expressed his identity; the king of Chittor. At that time Gandharvsen released the prisoners and marries his daughter with the king Ratan Sen. He also arranged 16,000 Padmini women as companion for the 16,000 men. Ratan Sen started his journey to return Chittor after hearing the message from a bird sent by his wife Nagmati. But at the sea, all the men and women were killed by a strong storm except Padmavati and Ratan Sen. Lakshmi was the daughter of the god Ocean. She wanted to test Ratan Sen’s love to his wife Padmavati. He succeeded and got many gifts from Lakshmi. They came back to Chittor. Ratan Sen banished the courtier Raghav Chetan for fraudulence in a test.     Sometimes, rivalry developed between Ratan Sen’s two wives, Nagmati and Padmavati. Raghav Chetan went to the fort of Sultan Alauddin Khilji and expressed the exceptional beauty of Chittor’s queen, Padmavati. Sultan Alauddin Khilji wanted to obtain Padmavati and besieged Chittor. But after failing to conquer Chittor, he feigned a peace of treaty with Ratan Sen and took him to Delhi. Rani Padmavati ordered Gora and Badal to help Ratan Sen. Badal disguised as Padmavati, Gora and the followers rescued Ratan Sen. But Gora was killed and Badal reached Chittor with Ratan Sen safely. When Ratan Sen was imprisoned in Delhi, Devpal the Rajput king of Chittor’s neighbor Kumbhalner, proposed to marry Padmavati through an emissary. But hearing this, Ratan Sen, after coming Chittor, decided to punish Devpal. A battle is started between Ratan Sen and Devpal. Unfortunately, Ratan Sen and Devpal killed each other. At that time, Alauddin Khilji again attacked Chittor but Padmavati and Nagmati committed self immolation (Sati) on Ratan Sen’s funeral pyre. All the men of Chittor fought to death against Alauddin Khilji and the women of Chittor committed mass self immolation (Jauhar). Alauddin Khilji acquired nothing but an empty fortress. He picked up the ashes of Ratan Sen and his wives Nagmati and Padmavati and lamented that he ‘wanted to avoid this’. He continued ‘desire is insatiable, permanent/but this world is illusory and transient/insatiable desire man continues to have/till life is over and he reaches his grave.’           Analysis of Film Story, Poem Story and Actual History  ‘Padmaavat’ is an action drama film not a historical film and it does not reflect the history of the historical figures, Maharawal Ratan Singh and Sultan Alauddin Khilji. ‘Padmaavat’ movie also does not reflect the poem story of the famous Sufi Poet Malik Muhammad Jayasi. Sanjay Leela Bhansali has adapted the film story in his own way. Actually, if we look at Satyajit ray’s work ‘Pather Panchali’ (1955), we will get the right answer. There are many differences between Bibhutibhushan Bandyopadhyay’s Pather Panchali novel story and Satyajit Ray’s Pather Panchali movie story. In Pather Panchali movie, Satyajit Ray has added many sequences’ story that is not in the original novel though he adapted the film story from ‘Pather Panchali’ novel. Similarly, Sanjay Leela Bhansali’s ‘Padmaavat’ movie has been adapted from the poem of Malik Muhammad Jayasi’s poem ‘Padmavat’. But there are many differences between the actual poem story and the film plot summery. This is why I have pointed out the two stories from the film and the poem. For example; Sultan Alauddin Khilji did not kill Maharawal Ratan Singh in the epic poem. Ratan Singh and Devpal have killed each other. But in Sanjay Leela Bhansali’s movie ‘Padmaavat’ it has been shown that Sultan Alauddin Khilji has betrayed with Ratan Singh and killed him. So, there are many differences between the two stories. Director Sanjay Leela Bhansali has adapted the film story in such way director Satyajit Ray had adapted his Pather Panchali film story. But here, Sanjay Leela Bhansali has shown nothing but a tale of good Vs evil. In this film, he has upheld the Rajput king, queen and everyone from Rajput Empire as good. On the other hand, he has made Khilji dynasty or Khilji troops or everyone from Khilji Empire as evil. But there is exception that Sanjay Leela has made a character Mehrunissa empress of Delhi Sultanate as good. In Jayasi’s poem, he has written, Ratan Singh went to Singhal kingdom only for love, only to marry Padmavati. But Sanjay Leela Bhansali has shown in his movie that Ratan Singh has gone Singhal to search pearls for his wife Nagmati. But there some own creation of the director for example; when the pavilions are burning from the firing arrows from the Rajput troops, Sultan is looking everything from bed at night. Besides, in another sequence, all the Khilji troops want to go back to Delhi but Sultan shows his strategy to them and they stop themselves to go back from Chittor to Delhi. Besides, in front of sultan, on the table, there are many food items he engulfs all food items like animal. It is Director’s own creation. But is it controversial or not we will know later. Another example; sultan is changing the two food plates at the time of eating food into the fortress.  Besides, in the battle, Ratan Singh and Sultan Alauddin Khilji both of them are fighting but Malik Kafur killed Ratan Singh with his arrows. Actually, it is not in Jayasi’s poem. Ratan Singh and Devpal killed each other. But in ‘Padmaavat’ director has shown that Malik Kafur has killed Ratan Singh. For this reason, we should know the actual history of the two historical figures Maharawal Ratan Singh and Delhi Sultan Alauddin Khilji. Many historians told that the history Maharawal Ratan Singh and Sultan Alauddin Khilji are the two prominent historical figures but there is no clue in history that Rani Padmavati is a historical figure. Sufi poet Malik Muhammad Jayasi has told his own words in the poem that ‘I have made up the story and related it.’ Padmavati character is fictional and this story is poet’s imagination. So, Padmavati is not a historical figure or character.     Changing Film Story as Fictional  I have told before that it is not a historical film. it is a work of fictional and director’s imagination. Though there are some similar parts or stories that have been taken from the Sufi poet Malik Muhammad Jayasi’s ‘Padmavat’ poem (1540). Most of the story of the film has been taken from the poem. But there are some parts that are director’s imagination or own creation. The creative works of the director have been enlisted on the above that we have already known. There is no historical authenticity of the film and it is a fictional work. Director Sanjay Leela Bhansali acknowledges the recognition writing disclaimers in the film screen. His disclaimers are ‘This film ‘Padmaavat’ is inspired from the epic poem Padmavat, written by Malik Muhammad Jayasi, which is considered a work of fiction. This Film does not infer or claim historical authenticity or accuracy in terms of the names of the places, characters, sequence of events, locations, spoken languages, dance forms, costumes and/or such other details. We do not intend to dispresent, impair or disparage the beliefs, sentiments of any person(s), community(ies) and their culture(s), costume(s), practice(s) and tradition(s).’ Director Sanjay Leela Bhansali has added another disclaimer that this film does not intend to encourage or support ‘Sati’ or such other practices.’ He also added that ‘all the animals & birds in this film have been treated with extreme love, care & concern in the presence of veterinarian doctors. Computer graphics were used for deer, horses, camels, elephants, bullocks, love birds, ostrich, white Macaw and parrots. Animatronics horses were used for better quality purpose.’ So, there is no controversy from this side that it is a fictional work and not a historical film. Director only has upheld the background and set design of the film of 1303 AD medieval India. He has upheld some historical figures or historical characters for example; Maharawal Ratan Singh the king of Chittor and Sultan Alauddin Khilji of Delhi but here Padmavati character is not historical figure. It is an imaginary character of the Sufi Poet Malik Muhammad Jayasi.     Political and historical controversy between the Hindus & the Muslims     In reality, the main problem of the film is with the history itself. The main controversial part of the film is its political and historical background. The Hindus and the Muslims of India protested before releasing the movie with their different ideology. The Hindus are thinking that it is a distortion of Rajput community history but the Muslims are thinking that here, the Muslims are shown very roughly specially the Muslim ruler Alauddin Khilji.     Besides, there are many objections and claims of the Hindus and the Muslims about the history and film contents. Some Hindus of India have objected it such a way that the content of the film, claiming, it insults the Rajput community and is a distortion of history, which hurts their religious sentiments.’ Some others claim about its ‘Dream Sequence’ or they object that it is a romantic scene between Rani Padmavati and Alauddin Khilji.’ Some others Hindus from Rajput community claim that film directors are portraying the film as a love story between Alauddin Khilji and Rani Padmavati, which is distortion of history.’ One BJP (Bharatiya Janata Party) MP claims ‘We will not tolerate any distortion of our history.’ Actually, their main controversy about the film is that ‘Changing the story of the film.’ A BJP MLA claims that ‘I will not allow any distortion of the valiant history of Rajsthan.’ Most of the Rajput community claims that ‘the filmmaker has presented distorted facts about Rani Padmavati which is an insult to the Rajput community.’ Before releasing the cinema, many BJP leaders protested to stop its release because they did not want any distortion of their Rajput community history.’ A BJP MLA claims that ‘if the film depicts history without any distortion and highlights the valour of Rajputs, we will welcome it. But if it portrays them in poor light then we will not allow its release in theatres.’ But at last director Sanjay Leela Bhansali becomes winner through Indian law and court. It has been released. Many Rajput community organizations protested to stop its release specially ‘Shri Rajput Karni sena’ an organization of Rajput community protested to ban the film. Besides, several Muslim leaders protested to ban the film because they claim that the film is misleading the history of Delhi Sultan Alauddin Khilji.’ The film has been banned in Malaysia for negative portray of Sultan Alauddin Khilji, a Muslim ruler.’ Besides, many unfortunate events have been occurred during the pre-production and production time. Many filmic ingredients have been broken, director was slapped on set, hair was pulled and the lead actress was threatened with beheading or having her nose cut off and many unnatural events.  Some English critics claim that Padmaavat does not match with Padmavati. But the main thing is it is a work of fiction. The professor of history at Rajsthan University Krishna Gopal Sharma tells that ‘Padmini was 15th wife of Maharawal Ratan Singh; Alauddin Khilji was enamored by Padmini’s beauty and saw her reflection in water is a myth and its root from Padmavat poem written by Malik Muhammad Jayasi.’                 Historical and Political Criticism  If a film is historical, the film cannot be a fictional film. History is the political story of past. Fiction is something imaginary that is not related to history. History is the true story of past. For example; Mangal pandey: The Rising (2005) is a historical film directed by Ketan Mehta and the lead actor is Aamir Khan. It does not expose any false or imaginary events. But it only expresses the truth of past political background of the year 1857 of Indian subcontinent. Director Sanjay Leela Bhansali has made the film story mixed with political history and imaginary story. So, it is not a historical film. It has some background of history. Director Sanjay Leela Bhansali has told that the film is not historical; it is imaginary and fictional work. Sufi poet Malik Muhammad Jayasi also said that the story of the poem is not historical but is imaginary and a work of fiction. Director Sanjay Leela Bhansali has acknowledged that. But most of the Rajput communities do not know that the character Padmavati is not a historical figure but an imaginary character only. Amir Khashru one of the famous historians of that Time has written the history about Maharawal Ratan Singh and Sultan Alauddin Khilji but he did not refer any kind of historical figure named Padmavati. When the audiences will watch the movie, at the first sight, they will tell that the movie is historical. But the audiences, who know the actual history and political background of Sultan Alauddin Khilji and Maharawal Ratan Singh, can tell that this is not a historical film but a fictional film. Besides, there are many scenes which are portraying false story of Sultan Alauddin Khilji. Actually, the whole film portrays the Muslims very roughly. Director Sanjay Leela Bhansali portrays the Rajputs as good and the Muslims as evil.     Freedom of speech ends where defamation begins  Before, I have said that in this film director has portrayed the Muslims as evil. It is not historical film but he has taken the shelter of history and has portrayed it with the help of imagination. It is fictional it is not a historical film but a work of fiction. We all know that freedom of speech is basic right for the people in most of the countries in the world. But when defamation begins, the freedom of speech is ended. In this film portraying the Muslims as evil is also defamation. It is a fictional work but director has no right to uphold the Muslims in such way.  It is not a historical film, it is a fictional film. Then it is a work of fiction but it’s nothing but a tale of good Vs evil. We should keep in mind that there are two kinds of religious people here; Hindus and Muslims. And the main controversy to the Muslims here that Muslims are shown very roughly or Muslims are evil and Hindus are good. Director has directed it through his own imagination and perspective but it is unethical to defame only the Muslims here, overall. Most of the people of India are Hindus and there are hardy some Muslims. So, as much as the Hindus pretested against the film to be released, the Muslims could not pretest. Its main cause would be now conservative BJP is the government Party in India and the Muslims cannot talk against them; it is natural. It is the most controversial film to the religious people of Indians as well as all over the world.        References   1. Padmaavat movie (2018)  2. Villagevoice.com   3. Theguardian.com  4.  Hollywoodreporter.com   5. Theglobeandmail.com   6.  Nytimes.com   7. Youtube.com   8. Youtube.com   9. Metacritic.com   10. Bollywoodhungama.com   11. Imdb.com   12. Rottentomatoes.com   13. Wikipedia.com
Padmaavat (2018) Film Poster

Padmaavat, Not a Historical Film

Padmaavat is the most controversial film ever in India. The film is directed, co-produced, co-edited and music composed by Sanjay Leela Bhansali in 2018. It is the ninth highest-grossing film in India. Sanjay Leela Bhansali is very popular film director in India for his extra ordinary works. For example Devdas (2002), Goliyon Ki Rasleela Ram-Leela (2013, Bajirao Mastani (2015) are the best. Padmaavat is the film of highest amount of budget from his all films. It has achieved most criticisms from the film critics and public audiences.

Performers as characters of the film
There are many performers role played by of the characters in the film. But the most important performers as the characters of the film are;
Deepika Padukone as Rani Padmavati
Shahid Kapoor as Maharawal Ratan Singh
Ranveer Singh as Sultan Alauddin Khilji
Aditi Rao Hydari as Mehrunissa
Jim Sarbh as Malik Kafur 
Anupriya Goenka as Nagmati
Ujjwal Chopra as Gora Singh

Plot Summery
The film is started with a sequence of Sultan Jalal-Uddin Khilji in Afghanistan. After, Khilji Dynasty is started in Delhi. Jala Uddin’s nephew Alauddin Khilji is the most powerful chief of the Khilji troops. He loots Devagiri, defeats the most powerful Mongols in a battle and after occupies Kara. The plot of the film is of 1303 AD medieval India. At the same time the king of Mewar journeys to Singhal to find out pearls for his wife Nagmati. In the jungle, the princess of Singhal is hunting deer. But unfortunately, her arrow is gone into king’s chest. She taks him into a cave and he recovers in her nursing. They fall in love with each other. At that time princess Padmavati was the most beautiful and skilled monarchy. Maharawal Ratan Singh, the king of Mewar finds out princess instead of pearls. The king of Singhal, Gandharvsen, marries his daughter with the king Ratan Singh. They come back to Chittor.
 
Padmaavat, Not a Historical Film  Padmaavat is the most controversial film ever in India. The film is directed, co-produced, co-edited and music composed by Sanjay Leela Bhansali in 2018. It is the ninth highest-grossing film in India. Sanjay Leela Bhansali is very popular film director in India for his extra ordinary works. For example Devdas (2002), Goliyon Ki Rasleela Ram-Leela (2013, Bajirao Mastani (2015) are the best. Padmaavat is the film of highest amount of budget from his all films. It has achieved most criticisms from the film critics and public audiences.     Performers as characters of the film  There are many performers role played by of the characters in the film. But the most important performers as the characters of the film are;  Deepika Padukone as Rani Padmavati  Shahid Kapoor as Maharawal Ratan Singh  Ranveer Singh as Sultan Alauddin Khilji  Aditi Rao Hydari as Mehrunissa  Jim Sarbh as Malik Kafur   Anupriya Goenka as Nagmati  Ujjwal Chopra as Gora Singh     Plot Summery  The film is started with a sequence of Sultan Jalal-Uddin Khilji in Afghanistan. After, Khilji Dynasty is started in Delhi. Jala Uddin’s nephew Alauddin Khilji is the most powerful chief of the Khilji troops. He loots Devagiri, defeats the most powerful Mongols in a battle and after occupies Kara. The plot of the film is of 1303 AD medieval India. At the same time the king of Mewar journeys to Singhal to find out pearls for his wife Nagmati. In the jungle, the princess of Singhal is hunting deer. But unfortunately, her arrow is gone into king’s chest. She taks him into a cave and he recovers in her nursing. They fall in love with each other. At that time princess Padmavati was the most beautiful and skilled monarchy. Maharawal Ratan Singh, the king of Mewar finds out princess instead of pearls. The king of Singhal, Gandharvsen, marries his daughter with the king Ratan Singh. They come back to Chittor.     The people of Chittor celebrate the day for the pride of Chittor. Ratan Singh takes Radmavati to their courtier, Raghav Chetan to take blessing. But Ratan Singh banishes him for his fraudulence. On the other side, Alauddin Khilji satisfies his uncle’s mind taking the victories. He marries his daughter Mehrunissa with Alauddin. But after some days, Alauddin kills his uncle and with the help of slave Malik Kafur gifted by his uncle. Alauddin becomes the new sultan of Delhi. He fulfilled his every desire. When the courtier of Chittor, Raghav Chetan comes to the fort, he expresses the Sultan telling about the beauty of the queen Padmavati. Sultan Alauddin Khilji starts his journey with troops for Chittor to do a big war. In Chittor, many troops are killed by the technique of Ratan Singh but Alauddin does not go back to Delhi. At last staying there for six months, Alauddin Khilji himself goes to Ratan Singh’s fort to do friendship before leaving Chittor. But strategically, Alauddin takes Ratan Singh to Delhi so that Rani Padmavati surely comes to Delhi. Alauddin Khilji accepts all the conditions of Padmavati and kills the courtier. Padmavati journeys to Delhi with 800 men instead of maids. At the same time, Itat Khan tries to kill Alauddin with arrows mixing poison. But he escapes and later kills Itat Khan. Wounded Alauddin cannot meet Padmavati because Mehrunissa helps her to escape Ratan Singh. They flee away from the fort through a tunnel. A little battle is happened. Chief Gora Singh, Badal Singh and all the troops are killed but Padmavati and Ratan Singh reaches Chittor safely. The people of Chittor celebrate to get back their king praise to their queen to escape their king. But Alauddin Khilji takes huge troops in Chittor for a big battle. A battle is started between Alauddin Khilji and Ratan Singh. Ratan Singh is killed by Malik Kafur’s arrows. All the troops of Ratan Singh are killed. But Rani Padmavati orders all the women to perform Jauhar (mass self-immolation) closing the gate of the fort. All the women with Rani Padmavati and Nagmati sacrifice their life to protect their dignity.        Story Adaptation  The story of the film is adapted from an epic poem ‘Padmavat’ written by Sufi Poet Malik Muhammad Jayasi in 1540. He lived in Uttar Pradesh at that time. Epic Poem ‘Padmavat’ is written in the Hindustani language of Awadhi and originally in the Persian Nastaliq language. The poem is translated in many languages. There is a Bengali version too. It is a fictional poem about Alauddin Khilji’s desire about the queen Padmavati of Chittor. In this epic poem Alauddin Khilji and Maharawal Ratan Singh are the historical figures but Ratan Sen’s or ratan Singh’s wife queen Padmavati is a fictional character, not a historical character. During the second emperor of the Mughal Empire, Humayun (1530-1540) poet Malik Muhammad Jayasi wrote the poem. But he enlisted the matters in the poem of beginning of 14th century (1303 AD) when Sulatan Alauddin Khilji occupied Chittor. ‘Padmavat’ is the ultimate source of some other adaptation works. Albert Roussel directed Opera ‘Padmavat’ (1923) in Paris, France.  Besides, a Tamil film named ‘Chittor Rani Padmini’ (1963) was directed by Chitrapu Narayana Rao. A Hindi film ‘Maharani Padmini’ (1964) was directed by Jashwat Jhaveri in 1964. All the films have been directed adapting the poem story ‘Padmavat’.     Plot of the Poem  Gandharvsen was the king of Singhal. The princess of Singhal Padmavati was very beautiful. The women of Singhal was called Padmini specially they were beautiful and had four kinds of skill or quality. Padmavati had a talking parrot named Hiraman. Hiraman was very close friend to the princess, Padmavati. They together studied the Vedas, the Hindu scriptures. But the king of Singhal resented the parrot’s closeness to his daughter. So, he wanted to kill the parrot. But the parrot bade good bye to the princess and few away in the jungle. A bird catcher caught the parrot and sold it near the Chittor Empire to a Brahmin. The Brahmin took it to the king of Chittor Maharawal Ratan Sen. Ratan Sen was very fond of to the parrot because the parrot could talk sweetly. The parrot talked about the beauty of the princess of Singhal Ratan Sen started his journey to marry Padmavati with 16,000 followers with the parrot’s guide. They went to Singhal after crossing seven seas and Ratan Sen came to a temple and commenced austerities to seek Padmavati. Padmavati came to the temple after listening from the parrot but did not meet with the ascetic. She returned to the palace. Ratan Sen was very upset and committed to suicide. But he was interrupted by the deities Shiva and Parvati. On Shiva’s advice, they attack on the royal fortress of Singhal kingdom. But they are defeated and when Ratan Sen was about to be executed, the parrot expressed his identity; the king of Chittor. At that time Gandharvsen released the prisoners and marries his daughter with the king Ratan Sen. He also arranged 16,000 Padmini women as companion for the 16,000 men. Ratan Sen started his journey to return Chittor after hearing the message from a bird sent by his wife Nagmati. But at the sea, all the men and women were killed by a strong storm except Padmavati and Ratan Sen. Lakshmi was the daughter of the god Ocean. She wanted to test Ratan Sen’s love to his wife Padmavati. He succeeded and got many gifts from Lakshmi. They came back to Chittor. Ratan Sen banished the courtier Raghav Chetan for fraudulence in a test.     Sometimes, rivalry developed between Ratan Sen’s two wives, Nagmati and Padmavati. Raghav Chetan went to the fort of Sultan Alauddin Khilji and expressed the exceptional beauty of Chittor’s queen, Padmavati. Sultan Alauddin Khilji wanted to obtain Padmavati and besieged Chittor. But after failing to conquer Chittor, he feigned a peace of treaty with Ratan Sen and took him to Delhi. Rani Padmavati ordered Gora and Badal to help Ratan Sen. Badal disguised as Padmavati, Gora and the followers rescued Ratan Sen. But Gora was killed and Badal reached Chittor with Ratan Sen safely. When Ratan Sen was imprisoned in Delhi, Devpal the Rajput king of Chittor’s neighbor Kumbhalner, proposed to marry Padmavati through an emissary. But hearing this, Ratan Sen, after coming Chittor, decided to punish Devpal. A battle is started between Ratan Sen and Devpal. Unfortunately, Ratan Sen and Devpal killed each other. At that time, Alauddin Khilji again attacked Chittor but Padmavati and Nagmati committed self immolation (Sati) on Ratan Sen’s funeral pyre. All the men of Chittor fought to death against Alauddin Khilji and the women of Chittor committed mass self immolation (Jauhar). Alauddin Khilji acquired nothing but an empty fortress. He picked up the ashes of Ratan Sen and his wives Nagmati and Padmavati and lamented that he ‘wanted to avoid this’. He continued ‘desire is insatiable, permanent/but this world is illusory and transient/insatiable desire man continues to have/till life is over and he reaches his grave.’           Analysis of Film Story, Poem Story and Actual History  ‘Padmaavat’ is an action drama film not a historical film and it does not reflect the history of the historical figures, Maharawal Ratan Singh and Sultan Alauddin Khilji. ‘Padmaavat’ movie also does not reflect the poem story of the famous Sufi Poet Malik Muhammad Jayasi. Sanjay Leela Bhansali has adapted the film story in his own way. Actually, if we look at Satyajit ray’s work ‘Pather Panchali’ (1955), we will get the right answer. There are many differences between Bibhutibhushan Bandyopadhyay’s Pather Panchali novel story and Satyajit Ray’s Pather Panchali movie story. In Pather Panchali movie, Satyajit Ray has added many sequences’ story that is not in the original novel though he adapted the film story from ‘Pather Panchali’ novel. Similarly, Sanjay Leela Bhansali’s ‘Padmaavat’ movie has been adapted from the poem of Malik Muhammad Jayasi’s poem ‘Padmavat’. But there are many differences between the actual poem story and the film plot summery. This is why I have pointed out the two stories from the film and the poem. For example; Sultan Alauddin Khilji did not kill Maharawal Ratan Singh in the epic poem. Ratan Singh and Devpal have killed each other. But in Sanjay Leela Bhansali’s movie ‘Padmaavat’ it has been shown that Sultan Alauddin Khilji has betrayed with Ratan Singh and killed him. So, there are many differences between the two stories. Director Sanjay Leela Bhansali has adapted the film story in such way director Satyajit Ray had adapted his Pather Panchali film story. But here, Sanjay Leela Bhansali has shown nothing but a tale of good Vs evil. In this film, he has upheld the Rajput king, queen and everyone from Rajput Empire as good. On the other hand, he has made Khilji dynasty or Khilji troops or everyone from Khilji Empire as evil. But there is exception that Sanjay Leela has made a character Mehrunissa empress of Delhi Sultanate as good. In Jayasi’s poem, he has written, Ratan Singh went to Singhal kingdom only for love, only to marry Padmavati. But Sanjay Leela Bhansali has shown in his movie that Ratan Singh has gone Singhal to search pearls for his wife Nagmati. But there some own creation of the director for example; when the pavilions are burning from the firing arrows from the Rajput troops, Sultan is looking everything from bed at night. Besides, in another sequence, all the Khilji troops want to go back to Delhi but Sultan shows his strategy to them and they stop themselves to go back from Chittor to Delhi. Besides, in front of sultan, on the table, there are many food items he engulfs all food items like animal. It is Director’s own creation. But is it controversial or not we will know later. Another example; sultan is changing the two food plates at the time of eating food into the fortress.  Besides, in the battle, Ratan Singh and Sultan Alauddin Khilji both of them are fighting but Malik Kafur killed Ratan Singh with his arrows. Actually, it is not in Jayasi’s poem. Ratan Singh and Devpal killed each other. But in ‘Padmaavat’ director has shown that Malik Kafur has killed Ratan Singh. For this reason, we should know the actual history of the two historical figures Maharawal Ratan Singh and Delhi Sultan Alauddin Khilji. Many historians told that the history Maharawal Ratan Singh and Sultan Alauddin Khilji are the two prominent historical figures but there is no clue in history that Rani Padmavati is a historical figure. Sufi poet Malik Muhammad Jayasi has told his own words in the poem that ‘I have made up the story and related it.’ Padmavati character is fictional and this story is poet’s imagination. So, Padmavati is not a historical figure or character.     Changing Film Story as Fictional  I have told before that it is not a historical film. it is a work of fictional and director’s imagination. Though there are some similar parts or stories that have been taken from the Sufi poet Malik Muhammad Jayasi’s ‘Padmavat’ poem (1540). Most of the story of the film has been taken from the poem. But there are some parts that are director’s imagination or own creation. The creative works of the director have been enlisted on the above that we have already known. There is no historical authenticity of the film and it is a fictional work. Director Sanjay Leela Bhansali acknowledges the recognition writing disclaimers in the film screen. His disclaimers are ‘This film ‘Padmaavat’ is inspired from the epic poem Padmavat, written by Malik Muhammad Jayasi, which is considered a work of fiction. This Film does not infer or claim historical authenticity or accuracy in terms of the names of the places, characters, sequence of events, locations, spoken languages, dance forms, costumes and/or such other details. We do not intend to dispresent, impair or disparage the beliefs, sentiments of any person(s), community(ies) and their culture(s), costume(s), practice(s) and tradition(s).’ Director Sanjay Leela Bhansali has added another disclaimer that this film does not intend to encourage or support ‘Sati’ or such other practices.’ He also added that ‘all the animals & birds in this film have been treated with extreme love, care & concern in the presence of veterinarian doctors. Computer graphics were used for deer, horses, camels, elephants, bullocks, love birds, ostrich, white Macaw and parrots. Animatronics horses were used for better quality purpose.’ So, there is no controversy from this side that it is a fictional work and not a historical film. Director only has upheld the background and set design of the film of 1303 AD medieval India. He has upheld some historical figures or historical characters for example; Maharawal Ratan Singh the king of Chittor and Sultan Alauddin Khilji of Delhi but here Padmavati character is not historical figure. It is an imaginary character of the Sufi Poet Malik Muhammad Jayasi.     Political and historical controversy between the Hindus & the Muslims     In reality, the main problem of the film is with the history itself. The main controversial part of the film is its political and historical background. The Hindus and the Muslims of India protested before releasing the movie with their different ideology. The Hindus are thinking that it is a distortion of Rajput community history but the Muslims are thinking that here, the Muslims are shown very roughly specially the Muslim ruler Alauddin Khilji.     Besides, there are many objections and claims of the Hindus and the Muslims about the history and film contents. Some Hindus of India have objected it such a way that the content of the film, claiming, it insults the Rajput community and is a distortion of history, which hurts their religious sentiments.’ Some others claim about its ‘Dream Sequence’ or they object that it is a romantic scene between Rani Padmavati and Alauddin Khilji.’ Some others Hindus from Rajput community claim that film directors are portraying the film as a love story between Alauddin Khilji and Rani Padmavati, which is distortion of history.’ One BJP (Bharatiya Janata Party) MP claims ‘We will not tolerate any distortion of our history.’ Actually, their main controversy about the film is that ‘Changing the story of the film.’ A BJP MLA claims that ‘I will not allow any distortion of the valiant history of Rajsthan.’ Most of the Rajput community claims that ‘the filmmaker has presented distorted facts about Rani Padmavati which is an insult to the Rajput community.’ Before releasing the cinema, many BJP leaders protested to stop its release because they did not want any distortion of their Rajput community history.’ A BJP MLA claims that ‘if the film depicts history without any distortion and highlights the valour of Rajputs, we will welcome it. But if it portrays them in poor light then we will not allow its release in theatres.’ But at last director Sanjay Leela Bhansali becomes winner through Indian law and court. It has been released. Many Rajput community organizations protested to stop its release specially ‘Shri Rajput Karni sena’ an organization of Rajput community protested to ban the film. Besides, several Muslim leaders protested to ban the film because they claim that the film is misleading the history of Delhi Sultan Alauddin Khilji.’ The film has been banned in Malaysia for negative portray of Sultan Alauddin Khilji, a Muslim ruler.’ Besides, many unfortunate events have been occurred during the pre-production and production time. Many filmic ingredients have been broken, director was slapped on set, hair was pulled and the lead actress was threatened with beheading or having her nose cut off and many unnatural events.  Some English critics claim that Padmaavat does not match with Padmavati. But the main thing is it is a work of fiction. The professor of history at Rajsthan University Krishna Gopal Sharma tells that ‘Padmini was 15th wife of Maharawal Ratan Singh; Alauddin Khilji was enamored by Padmini’s beauty and saw her reflection in water is a myth and its root from Padmavat poem written by Malik Muhammad Jayasi.’                 Historical and Political Criticism  If a film is historical, the film cannot be a fictional film. History is the political story of past. Fiction is something imaginary that is not related to history. History is the true story of past. For example; Mangal pandey: The Rising (2005) is a historical film directed by Ketan Mehta and the lead actor is Aamir Khan. It does not expose any false or imaginary events. But it only expresses the truth of past political background of the year 1857 of Indian subcontinent. Director Sanjay Leela Bhansali has made the film story mixed with political history and imaginary story. So, it is not a historical film. It has some background of history. Director Sanjay Leela Bhansali has told that the film is not historical; it is imaginary and fictional work. Sufi poet Malik Muhammad Jayasi also said that the story of the poem is not historical but is imaginary and a work of fiction. Director Sanjay Leela Bhansali has acknowledged that. But most of the Rajput communities do not know that the character Padmavati is not a historical figure but an imaginary character only. Amir Khashru one of the famous historians of that Time has written the history about Maharawal Ratan Singh and Sultan Alauddin Khilji but he did not refer any kind of historical figure named Padmavati. When the audiences will watch the movie, at the first sight, they will tell that the movie is historical. But the audiences, who know the actual history and political background of Sultan Alauddin Khilji and Maharawal Ratan Singh, can tell that this is not a historical film but a fictional film. Besides, there are many scenes which are portraying false story of Sultan Alauddin Khilji. Actually, the whole film portrays the Muslims very roughly. Director Sanjay Leela Bhansali portrays the Rajputs as good and the Muslims as evil.     Freedom of speech ends where defamation begins  Before, I have said that in this film director has portrayed the Muslims as evil. It is not historical film but he has taken the shelter of history and has portrayed it with the help of imagination. It is fictional it is not a historical film but a work of fiction. We all know that freedom of speech is basic right for the people in most of the countries in the world. But when defamation begins, the freedom of speech is ended. In this film portraying the Muslims as evil is also defamation. It is a fictional work but director has no right to uphold the Muslims in such way.  It is not a historical film, it is a fictional film. Then it is a work of fiction but it’s nothing but a tale of good Vs evil. We should keep in mind that there are two kinds of religious people here; Hindus and Muslims. And the main controversy to the Muslims here that Muslims are shown very roughly or Muslims are evil and Hindus are good. Director has directed it through his own imagination and perspective but it is unethical to defame only the Muslims here, overall. Most of the people of India are Hindus and there are hardy some Muslims. So, as much as the Hindus pretested against the film to be released, the Muslims could not pretest. Its main cause would be now conservative BJP is the government Party in India and the Muslims cannot talk against them; it is natural. It is the most controversial film to the religious people of Indians as well as all over the world.        References   1. Padmaavat movie (2018)  2. Villagevoice.com   3. Theguardian.com  4.  Hollywoodreporter.com   5. Theglobeandmail.com   6.  Nytimes.com   7. Youtube.com   8. Youtube.com   9. Metacritic.com   10. Bollywoodhungama.com   11. Imdb.com   12. Rottentomatoes.com   13. Wikipedia.com
Chittor Fortress: Padmaavat (2018)


The people of Chittor celebrate the day for the pride of Chittor. Ratan Singh takes Radmavati to their courtier, Raghav Chetan to take blessing. But Ratan Singh banishes him for his fraudulence. On the other side, Alauddin Khilji satisfies his uncle’s mind taking the victories. He marries his daughter Mehrunissa with Alauddin. But after some days, Alauddin kills his uncle and with the help of slave Malik Kafur gifted by his uncle. Alauddin becomes the new sultan of Delhi. He fulfilled his every desire. When the courtier of Chittor, Raghav Chetan comes to the fort, he expresses the Sultan telling about the beauty of the queen Padmavati. Sultan Alauddin Khilji starts his journey with troops for Chittor to do a big war. In Chittor, many troops are killed by the technique of Ratan Singh but Alauddin does not go back to Delhi. At last staying there for six months, Alauddin Khilji himself goes to Ratan Singh’s fort to do friendship before leaving Chittor. But strategically, Alauddin takes Ratan Singh to Delhi so that Rani Padmavati surely comes to Delhi. Alauddin Khilji accepts all the conditions of Padmavati and kills the courtier. Padmavati journeys to Delhi with 800 men instead of maids. At the same time, Itat Khan tries to kill Alauddin with arrows mixing poison. But he escapes and later kills Itat Khan. Wounded Alauddin cannot meet Padmavati because Mehrunissa helps her to escape Ratan Singh. They flee away from the fort through a tunnel. A little battle is happened. Chief Gora Singh, Badal Singh and all the troops are killed but Padmavati and Ratan Singh reaches Chittor safely. The people of Chittor celebrate to get back their king praise to their queen to escape their king. But Alauddin Khilji takes huge troops in Chittor for a big battle. A battle is started between Alauddin Khilji and Ratan Singh. Ratan Singh is killed by Malik Kafur’s arrows. All the troops of Ratan Singh are killed. But Rani Padmavati orders all the women to perform Jauhar (mass self-immolation) closing the gate of the fort. All the women with Rani Padmavati and Nagmati sacrifice their life to protect their dignity.


Padmaavat, Not a Historical Film  Padmaavat is the most controversial film ever in India. The film is directed, co-produced, co-edited and music composed by Sanjay Leela Bhansali in 2018. It is the ninth highest-grossing film in India. Sanjay Leela Bhansali is very popular film director in India for his extra ordinary works. For example Devdas (2002), Goliyon Ki Rasleela Ram-Leela (2013, Bajirao Mastani (2015) are the best. Padmaavat is the film of highest amount of budget from his all films. It has achieved most criticisms from the film critics and public audiences.     Performers as characters of the film  There are many performers role played by of the characters in the film. But the most important performers as the characters of the film are;  Deepika Padukone as Rani Padmavati  Shahid Kapoor as Maharawal Ratan Singh  Ranveer Singh as Sultan Alauddin Khilji  Aditi Rao Hydari as Mehrunissa  Jim Sarbh as Malik Kafur   Anupriya Goenka as Nagmati  Ujjwal Chopra as Gora Singh     Plot Summery  The film is started with a sequence of Sultan Jalal-Uddin Khilji in Afghanistan. After, Khilji Dynasty is started in Delhi. Jala Uddin’s nephew Alauddin Khilji is the most powerful chief of the Khilji troops. He loots Devagiri, defeats the most powerful Mongols in a battle and after occupies Kara. The plot of the film is of 1303 AD medieval India. At the same time the king of Mewar journeys to Singhal to find out pearls for his wife Nagmati. In the jungle, the princess of Singhal is hunting deer. But unfortunately, her arrow is gone into king’s chest. She taks him into a cave and he recovers in her nursing. They fall in love with each other. At that time princess Padmavati was the most beautiful and skilled monarchy. Maharawal Ratan Singh, the king of Mewar finds out princess instead of pearls. The king of Singhal, Gandharvsen, marries his daughter with the king Ratan Singh. They come back to Chittor.     The people of Chittor celebrate the day for the pride of Chittor. Ratan Singh takes Radmavati to their courtier, Raghav Chetan to take blessing. But Ratan Singh banishes him for his fraudulence. On the other side, Alauddin Khilji satisfies his uncle’s mind taking the victories. He marries his daughter Mehrunissa with Alauddin. But after some days, Alauddin kills his uncle and with the help of slave Malik Kafur gifted by his uncle. Alauddin becomes the new sultan of Delhi. He fulfilled his every desire. When the courtier of Chittor, Raghav Chetan comes to the fort, he expresses the Sultan telling about the beauty of the queen Padmavati. Sultan Alauddin Khilji starts his journey with troops for Chittor to do a big war. In Chittor, many troops are killed by the technique of Ratan Singh but Alauddin does not go back to Delhi. At last staying there for six months, Alauddin Khilji himself goes to Ratan Singh’s fort to do friendship before leaving Chittor. But strategically, Alauddin takes Ratan Singh to Delhi so that Rani Padmavati surely comes to Delhi. Alauddin Khilji accepts all the conditions of Padmavati and kills the courtier. Padmavati journeys to Delhi with 800 men instead of maids. At the same time, Itat Khan tries to kill Alauddin with arrows mixing poison. But he escapes and later kills Itat Khan. Wounded Alauddin cannot meet Padmavati because Mehrunissa helps her to escape Ratan Singh. They flee away from the fort through a tunnel. A little battle is happened. Chief Gora Singh, Badal Singh and all the troops are killed but Padmavati and Ratan Singh reaches Chittor safely. The people of Chittor celebrate to get back their king praise to their queen to escape their king. But Alauddin Khilji takes huge troops in Chittor for a big battle. A battle is started between Alauddin Khilji and Ratan Singh. Ratan Singh is killed by Malik Kafur’s arrows. All the troops of Ratan Singh are killed. But Rani Padmavati orders all the women to perform Jauhar (mass self-immolation) closing the gate of the fort. All the women with Rani Padmavati and Nagmati sacrifice their life to protect their dignity.        Story Adaptation  The story of the film is adapted from an epic poem ‘Padmavat’ written by Sufi Poet Malik Muhammad Jayasi in 1540. He lived in Uttar Pradesh at that time. Epic Poem ‘Padmavat’ is written in the Hindustani language of Awadhi and originally in the Persian Nastaliq language. The poem is translated in many languages. There is a Bengali version too. It is a fictional poem about Alauddin Khilji’s desire about the queen Padmavati of Chittor. In this epic poem Alauddin Khilji and Maharawal Ratan Singh are the historical figures but Ratan Sen’s or ratan Singh’s wife queen Padmavati is a fictional character, not a historical character. During the second emperor of the Mughal Empire, Humayun (1530-1540) poet Malik Muhammad Jayasi wrote the poem. But he enlisted the matters in the poem of beginning of 14th century (1303 AD) when Sulatan Alauddin Khilji occupied Chittor. ‘Padmavat’ is the ultimate source of some other adaptation works. Albert Roussel directed Opera ‘Padmavat’ (1923) in Paris, France.  Besides, a Tamil film named ‘Chittor Rani Padmini’ (1963) was directed by Chitrapu Narayana Rao. A Hindi film ‘Maharani Padmini’ (1964) was directed by Jashwat Jhaveri in 1964. All the films have been directed adapting the poem story ‘Padmavat’.     Plot of the Poem  Gandharvsen was the king of Singhal. The princess of Singhal Padmavati was very beautiful. The women of Singhal was called Padmini specially they were beautiful and had four kinds of skill or quality. Padmavati had a talking parrot named Hiraman. Hiraman was very close friend to the princess, Padmavati. They together studied the Vedas, the Hindu scriptures. But the king of Singhal resented the parrot’s closeness to his daughter. So, he wanted to kill the parrot. But the parrot bade good bye to the princess and few away in the jungle. A bird catcher caught the parrot and sold it near the Chittor Empire to a Brahmin. The Brahmin took it to the king of Chittor Maharawal Ratan Sen. Ratan Sen was very fond of to the parrot because the parrot could talk sweetly. The parrot talked about the beauty of the princess of Singhal Ratan Sen started his journey to marry Padmavati with 16,000 followers with the parrot’s guide. They went to Singhal after crossing seven seas and Ratan Sen came to a temple and commenced austerities to seek Padmavati. Padmavati came to the temple after listening from the parrot but did not meet with the ascetic. She returned to the palace. Ratan Sen was very upset and committed to suicide. But he was interrupted by the deities Shiva and Parvati. On Shiva’s advice, they attack on the royal fortress of Singhal kingdom. But they are defeated and when Ratan Sen was about to be executed, the parrot expressed his identity; the king of Chittor. At that time Gandharvsen released the prisoners and marries his daughter with the king Ratan Sen. He also arranged 16,000 Padmini women as companion for the 16,000 men. Ratan Sen started his journey to return Chittor after hearing the message from a bird sent by his wife Nagmati. But at the sea, all the men and women were killed by a strong storm except Padmavati and Ratan Sen. Lakshmi was the daughter of the god Ocean. She wanted to test Ratan Sen’s love to his wife Padmavati. He succeeded and got many gifts from Lakshmi. They came back to Chittor. Ratan Sen banished the courtier Raghav Chetan for fraudulence in a test.     Sometimes, rivalry developed between Ratan Sen’s two wives, Nagmati and Padmavati. Raghav Chetan went to the fort of Sultan Alauddin Khilji and expressed the exceptional beauty of Chittor’s queen, Padmavati. Sultan Alauddin Khilji wanted to obtain Padmavati and besieged Chittor. But after failing to conquer Chittor, he feigned a peace of treaty with Ratan Sen and took him to Delhi. Rani Padmavati ordered Gora and Badal to help Ratan Sen. Badal disguised as Padmavati, Gora and the followers rescued Ratan Sen. But Gora was killed and Badal reached Chittor with Ratan Sen safely. When Ratan Sen was imprisoned in Delhi, Devpal the Rajput king of Chittor’s neighbor Kumbhalner, proposed to marry Padmavati through an emissary. But hearing this, Ratan Sen, after coming Chittor, decided to punish Devpal. A battle is started between Ratan Sen and Devpal. Unfortunately, Ratan Sen and Devpal killed each other. At that time, Alauddin Khilji again attacked Chittor but Padmavati and Nagmati committed self immolation (Sati) on Ratan Sen’s funeral pyre. All the men of Chittor fought to death against Alauddin Khilji and the women of Chittor committed mass self immolation (Jauhar). Alauddin Khilji acquired nothing but an empty fortress. He picked up the ashes of Ratan Sen and his wives Nagmati and Padmavati and lamented that he ‘wanted to avoid this’. He continued ‘desire is insatiable, permanent/but this world is illusory and transient/insatiable desire man continues to have/till life is over and he reaches his grave.’           Analysis of Film Story, Poem Story and Actual History  ‘Padmaavat’ is an action drama film not a historical film and it does not reflect the history of the historical figures, Maharawal Ratan Singh and Sultan Alauddin Khilji. ‘Padmaavat’ movie also does not reflect the poem story of the famous Sufi Poet Malik Muhammad Jayasi. Sanjay Leela Bhansali has adapted the film story in his own way. Actually, if we look at Satyajit ray’s work ‘Pather Panchali’ (1955), we will get the right answer. There are many differences between Bibhutibhushan Bandyopadhyay’s Pather Panchali novel story and Satyajit Ray’s Pather Panchali movie story. In Pather Panchali movie, Satyajit Ray has added many sequences’ story that is not in the original novel though he adapted the film story from ‘Pather Panchali’ novel. Similarly, Sanjay Leela Bhansali’s ‘Padmaavat’ movie has been adapted from the poem of Malik Muhammad Jayasi’s poem ‘Padmavat’. But there are many differences between the actual poem story and the film plot summery. This is why I have pointed out the two stories from the film and the poem. For example; Sultan Alauddin Khilji did not kill Maharawal Ratan Singh in the epic poem. Ratan Singh and Devpal have killed each other. But in Sanjay Leela Bhansali’s movie ‘Padmaavat’ it has been shown that Sultan Alauddin Khilji has betrayed with Ratan Singh and killed him. So, there are many differences between the two stories. Director Sanjay Leela Bhansali has adapted the film story in such way director Satyajit Ray had adapted his Pather Panchali film story. But here, Sanjay Leela Bhansali has shown nothing but a tale of good Vs evil. In this film, he has upheld the Rajput king, queen and everyone from Rajput Empire as good. On the other hand, he has made Khilji dynasty or Khilji troops or everyone from Khilji Empire as evil. But there is exception that Sanjay Leela has made a character Mehrunissa empress of Delhi Sultanate as good. In Jayasi’s poem, he has written, Ratan Singh went to Singhal kingdom only for love, only to marry Padmavati. But Sanjay Leela Bhansali has shown in his movie that Ratan Singh has gone Singhal to search pearls for his wife Nagmati. But there some own creation of the director for example; when the pavilions are burning from the firing arrows from the Rajput troops, Sultan is looking everything from bed at night. Besides, in another sequence, all the Khilji troops want to go back to Delhi but Sultan shows his strategy to them and they stop themselves to go back from Chittor to Delhi. Besides, in front of sultan, on the table, there are many food items he engulfs all food items like animal. It is Director’s own creation. But is it controversial or not we will know later. Another example; sultan is changing the two food plates at the time of eating food into the fortress.  Besides, in the battle, Ratan Singh and Sultan Alauddin Khilji both of them are fighting but Malik Kafur killed Ratan Singh with his arrows. Actually, it is not in Jayasi’s poem. Ratan Singh and Devpal killed each other. But in ‘Padmaavat’ director has shown that Malik Kafur has killed Ratan Singh. For this reason, we should know the actual history of the two historical figures Maharawal Ratan Singh and Delhi Sultan Alauddin Khilji. Many historians told that the history Maharawal Ratan Singh and Sultan Alauddin Khilji are the two prominent historical figures but there is no clue in history that Rani Padmavati is a historical figure. Sufi poet Malik Muhammad Jayasi has told his own words in the poem that ‘I have made up the story and related it.’ Padmavati character is fictional and this story is poet’s imagination. So, Padmavati is not a historical figure or character.     Changing Film Story as Fictional  I have told before that it is not a historical film. it is a work of fictional and director’s imagination. Though there are some similar parts or stories that have been taken from the Sufi poet Malik Muhammad Jayasi’s ‘Padmavat’ poem (1540). Most of the story of the film has been taken from the poem. But there are some parts that are director’s imagination or own creation. The creative works of the director have been enlisted on the above that we have already known. There is no historical authenticity of the film and it is a fictional work. Director Sanjay Leela Bhansali acknowledges the recognition writing disclaimers in the film screen. His disclaimers are ‘This film ‘Padmaavat’ is inspired from the epic poem Padmavat, written by Malik Muhammad Jayasi, which is considered a work of fiction. This Film does not infer or claim historical authenticity or accuracy in terms of the names of the places, characters, sequence of events, locations, spoken languages, dance forms, costumes and/or such other details. We do not intend to dispresent, impair or disparage the beliefs, sentiments of any person(s), community(ies) and their culture(s), costume(s), practice(s) and tradition(s).’ Director Sanjay Leela Bhansali has added another disclaimer that this film does not intend to encourage or support ‘Sati’ or such other practices.’ He also added that ‘all the animals & birds in this film have been treated with extreme love, care & concern in the presence of veterinarian doctors. Computer graphics were used for deer, horses, camels, elephants, bullocks, love birds, ostrich, white Macaw and parrots. Animatronics horses were used for better quality purpose.’ So, there is no controversy from this side that it is a fictional work and not a historical film. Director only has upheld the background and set design of the film of 1303 AD medieval India. He has upheld some historical figures or historical characters for example; Maharawal Ratan Singh the king of Chittor and Sultan Alauddin Khilji of Delhi but here Padmavati character is not historical figure. It is an imaginary character of the Sufi Poet Malik Muhammad Jayasi.     Political and historical controversy between the Hindus & the Muslims     In reality, the main problem of the film is with the history itself. The main controversial part of the film is its political and historical background. The Hindus and the Muslims of India protested before releasing the movie with their different ideology. The Hindus are thinking that it is a distortion of Rajput community history but the Muslims are thinking that here, the Muslims are shown very roughly specially the Muslim ruler Alauddin Khilji.     Besides, there are many objections and claims of the Hindus and the Muslims about the history and film contents. Some Hindus of India have objected it such a way that the content of the film, claiming, it insults the Rajput community and is a distortion of history, which hurts their religious sentiments.’ Some others claim about its ‘Dream Sequence’ or they object that it is a romantic scene between Rani Padmavati and Alauddin Khilji.’ Some others Hindus from Rajput community claim that film directors are portraying the film as a love story between Alauddin Khilji and Rani Padmavati, which is distortion of history.’ One BJP (Bharatiya Janata Party) MP claims ‘We will not tolerate any distortion of our history.’ Actually, their main controversy about the film is that ‘Changing the story of the film.’ A BJP MLA claims that ‘I will not allow any distortion of the valiant history of Rajsthan.’ Most of the Rajput community claims that ‘the filmmaker has presented distorted facts about Rani Padmavati which is an insult to the Rajput community.’ Before releasing the cinema, many BJP leaders protested to stop its release because they did not want any distortion of their Rajput community history.’ A BJP MLA claims that ‘if the film depicts history without any distortion and highlights the valour of Rajputs, we will welcome it. But if it portrays them in poor light then we will not allow its release in theatres.’ But at last director Sanjay Leela Bhansali becomes winner through Indian law and court. It has been released. Many Rajput community organizations protested to stop its release specially ‘Shri Rajput Karni sena’ an organization of Rajput community protested to ban the film. Besides, several Muslim leaders protested to ban the film because they claim that the film is misleading the history of Delhi Sultan Alauddin Khilji.’ The film has been banned in Malaysia for negative portray of Sultan Alauddin Khilji, a Muslim ruler.’ Besides, many unfortunate events have been occurred during the pre-production and production time. Many filmic ingredients have been broken, director was slapped on set, hair was pulled and the lead actress was threatened with beheading or having her nose cut off and many unnatural events.  Some English critics claim that Padmaavat does not match with Padmavati. But the main thing is it is a work of fiction. The professor of history at Rajsthan University Krishna Gopal Sharma tells that ‘Padmini was 15th wife of Maharawal Ratan Singh; Alauddin Khilji was enamored by Padmini’s beauty and saw her reflection in water is a myth and its root from Padmavat poem written by Malik Muhammad Jayasi.’                 Historical and Political Criticism  If a film is historical, the film cannot be a fictional film. History is the political story of past. Fiction is something imaginary that is not related to history. History is the true story of past. For example; Mangal pandey: The Rising (2005) is a historical film directed by Ketan Mehta and the lead actor is Aamir Khan. It does not expose any false or imaginary events. But it only expresses the truth of past political background of the year 1857 of Indian subcontinent. Director Sanjay Leela Bhansali has made the film story mixed with political history and imaginary story. So, it is not a historical film. It has some background of history. Director Sanjay Leela Bhansali has told that the film is not historical; it is imaginary and fictional work. Sufi poet Malik Muhammad Jayasi also said that the story of the poem is not historical but is imaginary and a work of fiction. Director Sanjay Leela Bhansali has acknowledged that. But most of the Rajput communities do not know that the character Padmavati is not a historical figure but an imaginary character only. Amir Khashru one of the famous historians of that Time has written the history about Maharawal Ratan Singh and Sultan Alauddin Khilji but he did not refer any kind of historical figure named Padmavati. When the audiences will watch the movie, at the first sight, they will tell that the movie is historical. But the audiences, who know the actual history and political background of Sultan Alauddin Khilji and Maharawal Ratan Singh, can tell that this is not a historical film but a fictional film. Besides, there are many scenes which are portraying false story of Sultan Alauddin Khilji. Actually, the whole film portrays the Muslims very roughly. Director Sanjay Leela Bhansali portrays the Rajputs as good and the Muslims as evil.     Freedom of speech ends where defamation begins  Before, I have said that in this film director has portrayed the Muslims as evil. It is not historical film but he has taken the shelter of history and has portrayed it with the help of imagination. It is fictional it is not a historical film but a work of fiction. We all know that freedom of speech is basic right for the people in most of the countries in the world. But when defamation begins, the freedom of speech is ended. In this film portraying the Muslims as evil is also defamation. It is a fictional work but director has no right to uphold the Muslims in such way.  It is not a historical film, it is a fictional film. Then it is a work of fiction but it’s nothing but a tale of good Vs evil. We should keep in mind that there are two kinds of religious people here; Hindus and Muslims. And the main controversy to the Muslims here that Muslims are shown very roughly or Muslims are evil and Hindus are good. Director has directed it through his own imagination and perspective but it is unethical to defame only the Muslims here, overall. Most of the people of India are Hindus and there are hardy some Muslims. So, as much as the Hindus pretested against the film to be released, the Muslims could not pretest. Its main cause would be now conservative BJP is the government Party in India and the Muslims cannot talk against them; it is natural. It is the most controversial film to the religious people of Indians as well as all over the world.        References   1. Padmaavat movie (2018)  2. Villagevoice.com   3. Theguardian.com  4.  Hollywoodreporter.com   5. Theglobeandmail.com   6.  Nytimes.com   7. Youtube.com   8. Youtube.com   9. Metacritic.com   10. Bollywoodhungama.com   11. Imdb.com   12. Rottentomatoes.com   13. Wikipedia.com
The Padminis sacrifice their life performing Jauhar (mass self-immolation)


Story Adaptation
The story of the film is adapted from an epic poem ‘Padmavat’ written by Sufi Poet Malik Muhammad Jayasi in 1540. He lived in Uttar Pradesh at that time. Epic Poem ‘Padmavat’ is written in the Hindustani language of Awadhi and originally in the Persian Nastaliq language. The poem is translated in many languages. There is a Bengali version too. It is a fictional poem about Alauddin Khilji’s desire about the queen Padmavati of Chittor. In this epic poem Alauddin Khilji and Maharawal Ratan Singh are the historical figures but Ratan Sen’s or ratan Singh’s wife queen Padmavati is a fictional character, not a historical character. During the second emperor of the Mughal Empire, Humayun (1530-1540) poet Malik Muhammad Jayasi wrote the poem. But he enlisted the matters in the poem of beginning of 14th century (1303 AD) when Sulatan Alauddin Khilji occupied Chittor. ‘Padmavat’ is the ultimate source of some other adaptation works. Albert Roussel directed Opera ‘Padmavat’ (1923) in Paris, France.  Besides, a Tamil film named ‘Chittor Rani Padmini’ (1963) was directed by Chitrapu Narayana Rao. A Hindi film ‘Maharani Padmini’ (1964) was directed by Jashwat Jhaveri in 1964. All the films have been directed adapting the poem story ‘Padmavat’.

Plot of the Poem
Gandharvsen was the king of Singhal. The princess of Singhal Padmavati was very beautiful. The women of Singhal was called Padmini specially they were beautiful and had four kinds of skill or quality. Padmavati had a talking parrot named Hiraman. Hiraman was very close friend to the princess, Padmavati. They together studied the Vedas, the Hindu scriptures. But the king of Singhal resented the parrot’s closeness to his daughter. So, he wanted to kill the parrot. But the parrot bade good bye to the princess and few away in the jungle. A bird catcher caught the parrot and sold it near the Chittor Empire to a Brahmin. The Brahmin took it to the king of Chittor Maharawal Ratan Sen. Ratan Sen was very fond of to the parrot because the parrot could talk sweetly. The parrot talked about the beauty of the princess of Singhal Ratan Sen started his journey to marry Padmavati with 16,000 followers with the parrot’s guide. They went to Singhal after crossing seven seas and Ratan Sen came to a temple and commenced austerities to seek Padmavati. Padmavati came to the temple after listening from the parrot but did not meet with the ascetic. She returned to the palace. Ratan Sen was very upset and committed to suicide. But he was interrupted by the deities Shiva and Parvati. On Shiva’s advice, they attack on the royal fortress of Singhal kingdom. But they are defeated and when Ratan Sen was about to be executed, the parrot expressed his identity; the king of Chittor. At that time Gandharvsen released the prisoners and marries his daughter with the king Ratan Sen. He also arranged 16,000 Padmini women as companion for the 16,000 men. Ratan Sen started his journey to return Chittor after hearing the message from a bird sent by his wife Nagmati. But at the sea, all the men and women were killed by a strong storm except Padmavati and Ratan Sen. Lakshmi was the daughter of the god Ocean. She wanted to test Ratan Sen’s love to his wife Padmavati. He succeeded and got many gifts from Lakshmi. They came back to Chittor. Ratan Sen banished the courtier Raghav Chetan for fraudulence in a test.
 
Padmaavat, Not a Historical Film  Padmaavat is the most controversial film ever in India. The film is directed, co-produced, co-edited and music composed by Sanjay Leela Bhansali in 2018. It is the ninth highest-grossing film in India. Sanjay Leela Bhansali is very popular film director in India for his extra ordinary works. For example Devdas (2002), Goliyon Ki Rasleela Ram-Leela (2013, Bajirao Mastani (2015) are the best. Padmaavat is the film of highest amount of budget from his all films. It has achieved most criticisms from the film critics and public audiences.     Performers as characters of the film  There are many performers role played by of the characters in the film. But the most important performers as the characters of the film are;  Deepika Padukone as Rani Padmavati  Shahid Kapoor as Maharawal Ratan Singh  Ranveer Singh as Sultan Alauddin Khilji  Aditi Rao Hydari as Mehrunissa  Jim Sarbh as Malik Kafur   Anupriya Goenka as Nagmati  Ujjwal Chopra as Gora Singh     Plot Summery  The film is started with a sequence of Sultan Jalal-Uddin Khilji in Afghanistan. After, Khilji Dynasty is started in Delhi. Jala Uddin’s nephew Alauddin Khilji is the most powerful chief of the Khilji troops. He loots Devagiri, defeats the most powerful Mongols in a battle and after occupies Kara. The plot of the film is of 1303 AD medieval India. At the same time the king of Mewar journeys to Singhal to find out pearls for his wife Nagmati. In the jungle, the princess of Singhal is hunting deer. But unfortunately, her arrow is gone into king’s chest. She taks him into a cave and he recovers in her nursing. They fall in love with each other. At that time princess Padmavati was the most beautiful and skilled monarchy. Maharawal Ratan Singh, the king of Mewar finds out princess instead of pearls. The king of Singhal, Gandharvsen, marries his daughter with the king Ratan Singh. They come back to Chittor.     The people of Chittor celebrate the day for the pride of Chittor. Ratan Singh takes Radmavati to their courtier, Raghav Chetan to take blessing. But Ratan Singh banishes him for his fraudulence. On the other side, Alauddin Khilji satisfies his uncle’s mind taking the victories. He marries his daughter Mehrunissa with Alauddin. But after some days, Alauddin kills his uncle and with the help of slave Malik Kafur gifted by his uncle. Alauddin becomes the new sultan of Delhi. He fulfilled his every desire. When the courtier of Chittor, Raghav Chetan comes to the fort, he expresses the Sultan telling about the beauty of the queen Padmavati. Sultan Alauddin Khilji starts his journey with troops for Chittor to do a big war. In Chittor, many troops are killed by the technique of Ratan Singh but Alauddin does not go back to Delhi. At last staying there for six months, Alauddin Khilji himself goes to Ratan Singh’s fort to do friendship before leaving Chittor. But strategically, Alauddin takes Ratan Singh to Delhi so that Rani Padmavati surely comes to Delhi. Alauddin Khilji accepts all the conditions of Padmavati and kills the courtier. Padmavati journeys to Delhi with 800 men instead of maids. At the same time, Itat Khan tries to kill Alauddin with arrows mixing poison. But he escapes and later kills Itat Khan. Wounded Alauddin cannot meet Padmavati because Mehrunissa helps her to escape Ratan Singh. They flee away from the fort through a tunnel. A little battle is happened. Chief Gora Singh, Badal Singh and all the troops are killed but Padmavati and Ratan Singh reaches Chittor safely. The people of Chittor celebrate to get back their king praise to their queen to escape their king. But Alauddin Khilji takes huge troops in Chittor for a big battle. A battle is started between Alauddin Khilji and Ratan Singh. Ratan Singh is killed by Malik Kafur’s arrows. All the troops of Ratan Singh are killed. But Rani Padmavati orders all the women to perform Jauhar (mass self-immolation) closing the gate of the fort. All the women with Rani Padmavati and Nagmati sacrifice their life to protect their dignity.        Story Adaptation  The story of the film is adapted from an epic poem ‘Padmavat’ written by Sufi Poet Malik Muhammad Jayasi in 1540. He lived in Uttar Pradesh at that time. Epic Poem ‘Padmavat’ is written in the Hindustani language of Awadhi and originally in the Persian Nastaliq language. The poem is translated in many languages. There is a Bengali version too. It is a fictional poem about Alauddin Khilji’s desire about the queen Padmavati of Chittor. In this epic poem Alauddin Khilji and Maharawal Ratan Singh are the historical figures but Ratan Sen’s or ratan Singh’s wife queen Padmavati is a fictional character, not a historical character. During the second emperor of the Mughal Empire, Humayun (1530-1540) poet Malik Muhammad Jayasi wrote the poem. But he enlisted the matters in the poem of beginning of 14th century (1303 AD) when Sulatan Alauddin Khilji occupied Chittor. ‘Padmavat’ is the ultimate source of some other adaptation works. Albert Roussel directed Opera ‘Padmavat’ (1923) in Paris, France.  Besides, a Tamil film named ‘Chittor Rani Padmini’ (1963) was directed by Chitrapu Narayana Rao. A Hindi film ‘Maharani Padmini’ (1964) was directed by Jashwat Jhaveri in 1964. All the films have been directed adapting the poem story ‘Padmavat’.     Plot of the Poem  Gandharvsen was the king of Singhal. The princess of Singhal Padmavati was very beautiful. The women of Singhal was called Padmini specially they were beautiful and had four kinds of skill or quality. Padmavati had a talking parrot named Hiraman. Hiraman was very close friend to the princess, Padmavati. They together studied the Vedas, the Hindu scriptures. But the king of Singhal resented the parrot’s closeness to his daughter. So, he wanted to kill the parrot. But the parrot bade good bye to the princess and few away in the jungle. A bird catcher caught the parrot and sold it near the Chittor Empire to a Brahmin. The Brahmin took it to the king of Chittor Maharawal Ratan Sen. Ratan Sen was very fond of to the parrot because the parrot could talk sweetly. The parrot talked about the beauty of the princess of Singhal Ratan Sen started his journey to marry Padmavati with 16,000 followers with the parrot’s guide. They went to Singhal after crossing seven seas and Ratan Sen came to a temple and commenced austerities to seek Padmavati. Padmavati came to the temple after listening from the parrot but did not meet with the ascetic. She returned to the palace. Ratan Sen was very upset and committed to suicide. But he was interrupted by the deities Shiva and Parvati. On Shiva’s advice, they attack on the royal fortress of Singhal kingdom. But they are defeated and when Ratan Sen was about to be executed, the parrot expressed his identity; the king of Chittor. At that time Gandharvsen released the prisoners and marries his daughter with the king Ratan Sen. He also arranged 16,000 Padmini women as companion for the 16,000 men. Ratan Sen started his journey to return Chittor after hearing the message from a bird sent by his wife Nagmati. But at the sea, all the men and women were killed by a strong storm except Padmavati and Ratan Sen. Lakshmi was the daughter of the god Ocean. She wanted to test Ratan Sen’s love to his wife Padmavati. He succeeded and got many gifts from Lakshmi. They came back to Chittor. Ratan Sen banished the courtier Raghav Chetan for fraudulence in a test.     Sometimes, rivalry developed between Ratan Sen’s two wives, Nagmati and Padmavati. Raghav Chetan went to the fort of Sultan Alauddin Khilji and expressed the exceptional beauty of Chittor’s queen, Padmavati. Sultan Alauddin Khilji wanted to obtain Padmavati and besieged Chittor. But after failing to conquer Chittor, he feigned a peace of treaty with Ratan Sen and took him to Delhi. Rani Padmavati ordered Gora and Badal to help Ratan Sen. Badal disguised as Padmavati, Gora and the followers rescued Ratan Sen. But Gora was killed and Badal reached Chittor with Ratan Sen safely. When Ratan Sen was imprisoned in Delhi, Devpal the Rajput king of Chittor’s neighbor Kumbhalner, proposed to marry Padmavati through an emissary. But hearing this, Ratan Sen, after coming Chittor, decided to punish Devpal. A battle is started between Ratan Sen and Devpal. Unfortunately, Ratan Sen and Devpal killed each other. At that time, Alauddin Khilji again attacked Chittor but Padmavati and Nagmati committed self immolation (Sati) on Ratan Sen’s funeral pyre. All the men of Chittor fought to death against Alauddin Khilji and the women of Chittor committed mass self immolation (Jauhar). Alauddin Khilji acquired nothing but an empty fortress. He picked up the ashes of Ratan Sen and his wives Nagmati and Padmavati and lamented that he ‘wanted to avoid this’. He continued ‘desire is insatiable, permanent/but this world is illusory and transient/insatiable desire man continues to have/till life is over and he reaches his grave.’           Analysis of Film Story, Poem Story and Actual History  ‘Padmaavat’ is an action drama film not a historical film and it does not reflect the history of the historical figures, Maharawal Ratan Singh and Sultan Alauddin Khilji. ‘Padmaavat’ movie also does not reflect the poem story of the famous Sufi Poet Malik Muhammad Jayasi. Sanjay Leela Bhansali has adapted the film story in his own way. Actually, if we look at Satyajit ray’s work ‘Pather Panchali’ (1955), we will get the right answer. There are many differences between Bibhutibhushan Bandyopadhyay’s Pather Panchali novel story and Satyajit Ray’s Pather Panchali movie story. In Pather Panchali movie, Satyajit Ray has added many sequences’ story that is not in the original novel though he adapted the film story from ‘Pather Panchali’ novel. Similarly, Sanjay Leela Bhansali’s ‘Padmaavat’ movie has been adapted from the poem of Malik Muhammad Jayasi’s poem ‘Padmavat’. But there are many differences between the actual poem story and the film plot summery. This is why I have pointed out the two stories from the film and the poem. For example; Sultan Alauddin Khilji did not kill Maharawal Ratan Singh in the epic poem. Ratan Singh and Devpal have killed each other. But in Sanjay Leela Bhansali’s movie ‘Padmaavat’ it has been shown that Sultan Alauddin Khilji has betrayed with Ratan Singh and killed him. So, there are many differences between the two stories. Director Sanjay Leela Bhansali has adapted the film story in such way director Satyajit Ray had adapted his Pather Panchali film story. But here, Sanjay Leela Bhansali has shown nothing but a tale of good Vs evil. In this film, he has upheld the Rajput king, queen and everyone from Rajput Empire as good. On the other hand, he has made Khilji dynasty or Khilji troops or everyone from Khilji Empire as evil. But there is exception that Sanjay Leela has made a character Mehrunissa empress of Delhi Sultanate as good. In Jayasi’s poem, he has written, Ratan Singh went to Singhal kingdom only for love, only to marry Padmavati. But Sanjay Leela Bhansali has shown in his movie that Ratan Singh has gone Singhal to search pearls for his wife Nagmati. But there some own creation of the director for example; when the pavilions are burning from the firing arrows from the Rajput troops, Sultan is looking everything from bed at night. Besides, in another sequence, all the Khilji troops want to go back to Delhi but Sultan shows his strategy to them and they stop themselves to go back from Chittor to Delhi. Besides, in front of sultan, on the table, there are many food items he engulfs all food items like animal. It is Director’s own creation. But is it controversial or not we will know later. Another example; sultan is changing the two food plates at the time of eating food into the fortress.  Besides, in the battle, Ratan Singh and Sultan Alauddin Khilji both of them are fighting but Malik Kafur killed Ratan Singh with his arrows. Actually, it is not in Jayasi’s poem. Ratan Singh and Devpal killed each other. But in ‘Padmaavat’ director has shown that Malik Kafur has killed Ratan Singh. For this reason, we should know the actual history of the two historical figures Maharawal Ratan Singh and Delhi Sultan Alauddin Khilji. Many historians told that the history Maharawal Ratan Singh and Sultan Alauddin Khilji are the two prominent historical figures but there is no clue in history that Rani Padmavati is a historical figure. Sufi poet Malik Muhammad Jayasi has told his own words in the poem that ‘I have made up the story and related it.’ Padmavati character is fictional and this story is poet’s imagination. So, Padmavati is not a historical figure or character.     Changing Film Story as Fictional  I have told before that it is not a historical film. it is a work of fictional and director’s imagination. Though there are some similar parts or stories that have been taken from the Sufi poet Malik Muhammad Jayasi’s ‘Padmavat’ poem (1540). Most of the story of the film has been taken from the poem. But there are some parts that are director’s imagination or own creation. The creative works of the director have been enlisted on the above that we have already known. There is no historical authenticity of the film and it is a fictional work. Director Sanjay Leela Bhansali acknowledges the recognition writing disclaimers in the film screen. His disclaimers are ‘This film ‘Padmaavat’ is inspired from the epic poem Padmavat, written by Malik Muhammad Jayasi, which is considered a work of fiction. This Film does not infer or claim historical authenticity or accuracy in terms of the names of the places, characters, sequence of events, locations, spoken languages, dance forms, costumes and/or such other details. We do not intend to dispresent, impair or disparage the beliefs, sentiments of any person(s), community(ies) and their culture(s), costume(s), practice(s) and tradition(s).’ Director Sanjay Leela Bhansali has added another disclaimer that this film does not intend to encourage or support ‘Sati’ or such other practices.’ He also added that ‘all the animals & birds in this film have been treated with extreme love, care & concern in the presence of veterinarian doctors. Computer graphics were used for deer, horses, camels, elephants, bullocks, love birds, ostrich, white Macaw and parrots. Animatronics horses were used for better quality purpose.’ So, there is no controversy from this side that it is a fictional work and not a historical film. Director only has upheld the background and set design of the film of 1303 AD medieval India. He has upheld some historical figures or historical characters for example; Maharawal Ratan Singh the king of Chittor and Sultan Alauddin Khilji of Delhi but here Padmavati character is not historical figure. It is an imaginary character of the Sufi Poet Malik Muhammad Jayasi.     Political and historical controversy between the Hindus & the Muslims     In reality, the main problem of the film is with the history itself. The main controversial part of the film is its political and historical background. The Hindus and the Muslims of India protested before releasing the movie with their different ideology. The Hindus are thinking that it is a distortion of Rajput community history but the Muslims are thinking that here, the Muslims are shown very roughly specially the Muslim ruler Alauddin Khilji.     Besides, there are many objections and claims of the Hindus and the Muslims about the history and film contents. Some Hindus of India have objected it such a way that the content of the film, claiming, it insults the Rajput community and is a distortion of history, which hurts their religious sentiments.’ Some others claim about its ‘Dream Sequence’ or they object that it is a romantic scene between Rani Padmavati and Alauddin Khilji.’ Some others Hindus from Rajput community claim that film directors are portraying the film as a love story between Alauddin Khilji and Rani Padmavati, which is distortion of history.’ One BJP (Bharatiya Janata Party) MP claims ‘We will not tolerate any distortion of our history.’ Actually, their main controversy about the film is that ‘Changing the story of the film.’ A BJP MLA claims that ‘I will not allow any distortion of the valiant history of Rajsthan.’ Most of the Rajput community claims that ‘the filmmaker has presented distorted facts about Rani Padmavati which is an insult to the Rajput community.’ Before releasing the cinema, many BJP leaders protested to stop its release because they did not want any distortion of their Rajput community history.’ A BJP MLA claims that ‘if the film depicts history without any distortion and highlights the valour of Rajputs, we will welcome it. But if it portrays them in poor light then we will not allow its release in theatres.’ But at last director Sanjay Leela Bhansali becomes winner through Indian law and court. It has been released. Many Rajput community organizations protested to stop its release specially ‘Shri Rajput Karni sena’ an organization of Rajput community protested to ban the film. Besides, several Muslim leaders protested to ban the film because they claim that the film is misleading the history of Delhi Sultan Alauddin Khilji.’ The film has been banned in Malaysia for negative portray of Sultan Alauddin Khilji, a Muslim ruler.’ Besides, many unfortunate events have been occurred during the pre-production and production time. Many filmic ingredients have been broken, director was slapped on set, hair was pulled and the lead actress was threatened with beheading or having her nose cut off and many unnatural events.  Some English critics claim that Padmaavat does not match with Padmavati. But the main thing is it is a work of fiction. The professor of history at Rajsthan University Krishna Gopal Sharma tells that ‘Padmini was 15th wife of Maharawal Ratan Singh; Alauddin Khilji was enamored by Padmini’s beauty and saw her reflection in water is a myth and its root from Padmavat poem written by Malik Muhammad Jayasi.’                 Historical and Political Criticism  If a film is historical, the film cannot be a fictional film. History is the political story of past. Fiction is something imaginary that is not related to history. History is the true story of past. For example; Mangal pandey: The Rising (2005) is a historical film directed by Ketan Mehta and the lead actor is Aamir Khan. It does not expose any false or imaginary events. But it only expresses the truth of past political background of the year 1857 of Indian subcontinent. Director Sanjay Leela Bhansali has made the film story mixed with political history and imaginary story. So, it is not a historical film. It has some background of history. Director Sanjay Leela Bhansali has told that the film is not historical; it is imaginary and fictional work. Sufi poet Malik Muhammad Jayasi also said that the story of the poem is not historical but is imaginary and a work of fiction. Director Sanjay Leela Bhansali has acknowledged that. But most of the Rajput communities do not know that the character Padmavati is not a historical figure but an imaginary character only. Amir Khashru one of the famous historians of that Time has written the history about Maharawal Ratan Singh and Sultan Alauddin Khilji but he did not refer any kind of historical figure named Padmavati. When the audiences will watch the movie, at the first sight, they will tell that the movie is historical. But the audiences, who know the actual history and political background of Sultan Alauddin Khilji and Maharawal Ratan Singh, can tell that this is not a historical film but a fictional film. Besides, there are many scenes which are portraying false story of Sultan Alauddin Khilji. Actually, the whole film portrays the Muslims very roughly. Director Sanjay Leela Bhansali portrays the Rajputs as good and the Muslims as evil.     Freedom of speech ends where defamation begins  Before, I have said that in this film director has portrayed the Muslims as evil. It is not historical film but he has taken the shelter of history and has portrayed it with the help of imagination. It is fictional it is not a historical film but a work of fiction. We all know that freedom of speech is basic right for the people in most of the countries in the world. But when defamation begins, the freedom of speech is ended. In this film portraying the Muslims as evil is also defamation. It is a fictional work but director has no right to uphold the Muslims in such way.  It is not a historical film, it is a fictional film. Then it is a work of fiction but it’s nothing but a tale of good Vs evil. We should keep in mind that there are two kinds of religious people here; Hindus and Muslims. And the main controversy to the Muslims here that Muslims are shown very roughly or Muslims are evil and Hindus are good. Director has directed it through his own imagination and perspective but it is unethical to defame only the Muslims here, overall. Most of the people of India are Hindus and there are hardy some Muslims. So, as much as the Hindus pretested against the film to be released, the Muslims could not pretest. Its main cause would be now conservative BJP is the government Party in India and the Muslims cannot talk against them; it is natural. It is the most controversial film to the religious people of Indians as well as all over the world.        References   1. Padmaavat movie (2018)  2. Villagevoice.com   3. Theguardian.com  4.  Hollywoodreporter.com   5. Theglobeandmail.com   6.  Nytimes.com   7. Youtube.com   8. Youtube.com   9. Metacritic.com   10. Bollywoodhungama.com   11. Imdb.com   12. Rottentomatoes.com   13. Wikipedia.com
Maharawal Ratan Singh, Padmavati and the courtier Raghav Chetan: Padmaavat (2018)
Sometimes, rivalry developed between Ratan Sen’s two wives, Nagmati and Padmavati. Raghav Chetan went to the fort of Sultan Alauddin Khilji and expressed the exceptional beauty of Chittor’s queen, Padmavati. Sultan Alauddin Khilji wanted to obtain Padmavati and besieged Chittor. But after failing to conquer Chittor, he feigned a peace of treaty with Ratan Sen and took him to Delhi. Rani Padmavati ordered Gora and Badal to help Ratan Sen. Badal disguised as Padmavati, Gora and the followers rescued Ratan Sen. But Gora was killed and Badal reached Chittor with Ratan Sen safely. When Ratan Sen was imprisoned in Delhi, Devpal the Rajput king of Chittor’s neighbor Kumbhalner, proposed to marry Padmavati through an emissary. But hearing this, Ratan Sen, after coming Chittor, decided to punish Devpal. A battle is started between Ratan Sen and Devpal. Unfortunately, Ratan Sen and Devpal killed each other. At that time, Alauddin Khilji again attacked Chittor but Padmavati and Nagmati committed self immolation (Sati) on Ratan Sen’s funeral pyre. All the men of Chittor fought to death against Alauddin Khilji and the women of Chittor committed mass self immolation (Jauhar). Alauddin Khilji acquired nothing but an empty fortress. He picked up the ashes of Ratan Sen and his wives Nagmati and Padmavati and lamented that he ‘wanted to avoid this’. He continued ‘desire is insatiable, permanent/but this world is illusory and transient/insatiable desire man continues to have/till life is over and he reaches his grave.’



Analysis of Film Story, Poem Story and Actual History
‘Padmaavat’ is an action drama film not a historical film and it does not reflect the history of the historical figures, Maharawal Ratan Singh and Sultan Alauddin Khilji. ‘Padmaavat’ movie also does not reflect the poem story of the famous Sufi Poet Malik Muhammad Jayasi. Sanjay Leela Bhansali has adapted the film story in his own way. Actually, if we look at Satyajit ray’s work ‘Pather Panchali’ (1955), we will get the right answer. There are many differences between Bibhutibhushan Bandyopadhyay’s Pather Panchali novel story and Satyajit Ray’s Pather Panchali movie story. In Pather Panchali movie, Satyajit Ray has added many sequences’ story that is not in the original novel though he adapted the film story from ‘Pather Panchali’ novel. Similarly, Sanjay Leela Bhansali’s ‘Padmaavat’ movie has been adapted from the poem of Malik Muhammad Jayasi’s poem ‘Padmavat’. But there are many differences between the actual poem story and the film plot summery. This is why I have pointed out the two stories from the film and the poem. For example; Sultan Alauddin Khilji did not kill Maharawal Ratan Singh in the epic poem. Ratan Singh and Devpal have killed each other. But in Sanjay Leela Bhansali’s movie ‘Padmaavat’ it has been shown that Sultan Alauddin Khilji has betrayed with Ratan Singh and killed him. So, there are many differences between the two stories. Director Sanjay Leela Bhansali has adapted the film story in such way director Satyajit Ray had adapted his Pather Panchali film story. But here, Sanjay Leela Bhansali has shown nothing but a tale of good Vs evil. In this film, he has upheld the Rajput king, queen and everyone from Rajput Empire as good. On the other hand, he has made Khilji dynasty or Khilji troops or everyone from Khilji Empire as evil. But there is exception that Sanjay Leela has made a character Mehrunissa empress of Delhi Sultanate as good. In Jayasi’s poem, he has written, Ratan Singh went to Singhal kingdom only for love, only to marry Padmavati. But Sanjay Leela Bhansali has shown in his movie that Ratan Singh has gone Singhal to search pearls for his wife Nagmati. But there some own creation of the director for example; when the pavilions are burning from the firing arrows from the Rajput troops, Sultan is looking everything from bed at night. Besides, in another sequence, all the Khilji troops want to go back to Delhi but Sultan shows his strategy to them and they stop themselves to go back from Chittor to Delhi. Besides, in front of sultan, on the table, there are many food items he engulfs all food items like animal. It is Director’s own creation. But is it controversial or not we will know later. Another example; sultan is changing the two food plates at the time of eating food into the fortress.

Padmaavat, Not a Historical Film  Padmaavat is the most controversial film ever in India. The film is directed, co-produced, co-edited and music composed by Sanjay Leela Bhansali in 2018. It is the ninth highest-grossing film in India. Sanjay Leela Bhansali is very popular film director in India for his extra ordinary works. For example Devdas (2002), Goliyon Ki Rasleela Ram-Leela (2013, Bajirao Mastani (2015) are the best. Padmaavat is the film of highest amount of budget from his all films. It has achieved most criticisms from the film critics and public audiences.     Performers as characters of the film  There are many performers role played by of the characters in the film. But the most important performers as the characters of the film are;  Deepika Padukone as Rani Padmavati  Shahid Kapoor as Maharawal Ratan Singh  Ranveer Singh as Sultan Alauddin Khilji  Aditi Rao Hydari as Mehrunissa  Jim Sarbh as Malik Kafur   Anupriya Goenka as Nagmati  Ujjwal Chopra as Gora Singh     Plot Summery  The film is started with a sequence of Sultan Jalal-Uddin Khilji in Afghanistan. After, Khilji Dynasty is started in Delhi. Jala Uddin’s nephew Alauddin Khilji is the most powerful chief of the Khilji troops. He loots Devagiri, defeats the most powerful Mongols in a battle and after occupies Kara. The plot of the film is of 1303 AD medieval India. At the same time the king of Mewar journeys to Singhal to find out pearls for his wife Nagmati. In the jungle, the princess of Singhal is hunting deer. But unfortunately, her arrow is gone into king’s chest. She taks him into a cave and he recovers in her nursing. They fall in love with each other. At that time princess Padmavati was the most beautiful and skilled monarchy. Maharawal Ratan Singh, the king of Mewar finds out princess instead of pearls. The king of Singhal, Gandharvsen, marries his daughter with the king Ratan Singh. They come back to Chittor.     The people of Chittor celebrate the day for the pride of Chittor. Ratan Singh takes Radmavati to their courtier, Raghav Chetan to take blessing. But Ratan Singh banishes him for his fraudulence. On the other side, Alauddin Khilji satisfies his uncle’s mind taking the victories. He marries his daughter Mehrunissa with Alauddin. But after some days, Alauddin kills his uncle and with the help of slave Malik Kafur gifted by his uncle. Alauddin becomes the new sultan of Delhi. He fulfilled his every desire. When the courtier of Chittor, Raghav Chetan comes to the fort, he expresses the Sultan telling about the beauty of the queen Padmavati. Sultan Alauddin Khilji starts his journey with troops for Chittor to do a big war. In Chittor, many troops are killed by the technique of Ratan Singh but Alauddin does not go back to Delhi. At last staying there for six months, Alauddin Khilji himself goes to Ratan Singh’s fort to do friendship before leaving Chittor. But strategically, Alauddin takes Ratan Singh to Delhi so that Rani Padmavati surely comes to Delhi. Alauddin Khilji accepts all the conditions of Padmavati and kills the courtier. Padmavati journeys to Delhi with 800 men instead of maids. At the same time, Itat Khan tries to kill Alauddin with arrows mixing poison. But he escapes and later kills Itat Khan. Wounded Alauddin cannot meet Padmavati because Mehrunissa helps her to escape Ratan Singh. They flee away from the fort through a tunnel. A little battle is happened. Chief Gora Singh, Badal Singh and all the troops are killed but Padmavati and Ratan Singh reaches Chittor safely. The people of Chittor celebrate to get back their king praise to their queen to escape their king. But Alauddin Khilji takes huge troops in Chittor for a big battle. A battle is started between Alauddin Khilji and Ratan Singh. Ratan Singh is killed by Malik Kafur’s arrows. All the troops of Ratan Singh are killed. But Rani Padmavati orders all the women to perform Jauhar (mass self-immolation) closing the gate of the fort. All the women with Rani Padmavati and Nagmati sacrifice their life to protect their dignity.        Story Adaptation  The story of the film is adapted from an epic poem ‘Padmavat’ written by Sufi Poet Malik Muhammad Jayasi in 1540. He lived in Uttar Pradesh at that time. Epic Poem ‘Padmavat’ is written in the Hindustani language of Awadhi and originally in the Persian Nastaliq language. The poem is translated in many languages. There is a Bengali version too. It is a fictional poem about Alauddin Khilji’s desire about the queen Padmavati of Chittor. In this epic poem Alauddin Khilji and Maharawal Ratan Singh are the historical figures but Ratan Sen’s or ratan Singh’s wife queen Padmavati is a fictional character, not a historical character. During the second emperor of the Mughal Empire, Humayun (1530-1540) poet Malik Muhammad Jayasi wrote the poem. But he enlisted the matters in the poem of beginning of 14th century (1303 AD) when Sulatan Alauddin Khilji occupied Chittor. ‘Padmavat’ is the ultimate source of some other adaptation works. Albert Roussel directed Opera ‘Padmavat’ (1923) in Paris, France.  Besides, a Tamil film named ‘Chittor Rani Padmini’ (1963) was directed by Chitrapu Narayana Rao. A Hindi film ‘Maharani Padmini’ (1964) was directed by Jashwat Jhaveri in 1964. All the films have been directed adapting the poem story ‘Padmavat’.     Plot of the Poem  Gandharvsen was the king of Singhal. The princess of Singhal Padmavati was very beautiful. The women of Singhal was called Padmini specially they were beautiful and had four kinds of skill or quality. Padmavati had a talking parrot named Hiraman. Hiraman was very close friend to the princess, Padmavati. They together studied the Vedas, the Hindu scriptures. But the king of Singhal resented the parrot’s closeness to his daughter. So, he wanted to kill the parrot. But the parrot bade good bye to the princess and few away in the jungle. A bird catcher caught the parrot and sold it near the Chittor Empire to a Brahmin. The Brahmin took it to the king of Chittor Maharawal Ratan Sen. Ratan Sen was very fond of to the parrot because the parrot could talk sweetly. The parrot talked about the beauty of the princess of Singhal Ratan Sen started his journey to marry Padmavati with 16,000 followers with the parrot’s guide. They went to Singhal after crossing seven seas and Ratan Sen came to a temple and commenced austerities to seek Padmavati. Padmavati came to the temple after listening from the parrot but did not meet with the ascetic. She returned to the palace. Ratan Sen was very upset and committed to suicide. But he was interrupted by the deities Shiva and Parvati. On Shiva’s advice, they attack on the royal fortress of Singhal kingdom. But they are defeated and when Ratan Sen was about to be executed, the parrot expressed his identity; the king of Chittor. At that time Gandharvsen released the prisoners and marries his daughter with the king Ratan Sen. He also arranged 16,000 Padmini women as companion for the 16,000 men. Ratan Sen started his journey to return Chittor after hearing the message from a bird sent by his wife Nagmati. But at the sea, all the men and women were killed by a strong storm except Padmavati and Ratan Sen. Lakshmi was the daughter of the god Ocean. She wanted to test Ratan Sen’s love to his wife Padmavati. He succeeded and got many gifts from Lakshmi. They came back to Chittor. Ratan Sen banished the courtier Raghav Chetan for fraudulence in a test.     Sometimes, rivalry developed between Ratan Sen’s two wives, Nagmati and Padmavati. Raghav Chetan went to the fort of Sultan Alauddin Khilji and expressed the exceptional beauty of Chittor’s queen, Padmavati. Sultan Alauddin Khilji wanted to obtain Padmavati and besieged Chittor. But after failing to conquer Chittor, he feigned a peace of treaty with Ratan Sen and took him to Delhi. Rani Padmavati ordered Gora and Badal to help Ratan Sen. Badal disguised as Padmavati, Gora and the followers rescued Ratan Sen. But Gora was killed and Badal reached Chittor with Ratan Sen safely. When Ratan Sen was imprisoned in Delhi, Devpal the Rajput king of Chittor’s neighbor Kumbhalner, proposed to marry Padmavati through an emissary. But hearing this, Ratan Sen, after coming Chittor, decided to punish Devpal. A battle is started between Ratan Sen and Devpal. Unfortunately, Ratan Sen and Devpal killed each other. At that time, Alauddin Khilji again attacked Chittor but Padmavati and Nagmati committed self immolation (Sati) on Ratan Sen’s funeral pyre. All the men of Chittor fought to death against Alauddin Khilji and the women of Chittor committed mass self immolation (Jauhar). Alauddin Khilji acquired nothing but an empty fortress. He picked up the ashes of Ratan Sen and his wives Nagmati and Padmavati and lamented that he ‘wanted to avoid this’. He continued ‘desire is insatiable, permanent/but this world is illusory and transient/insatiable desire man continues to have/till life is over and he reaches his grave.’           Analysis of Film Story, Poem Story and Actual History  ‘Padmaavat’ is an action drama film not a historical film and it does not reflect the history of the historical figures, Maharawal Ratan Singh and Sultan Alauddin Khilji. ‘Padmaavat’ movie also does not reflect the poem story of the famous Sufi Poet Malik Muhammad Jayasi. Sanjay Leela Bhansali has adapted the film story in his own way. Actually, if we look at Satyajit ray’s work ‘Pather Panchali’ (1955), we will get the right answer. There are many differences between Bibhutibhushan Bandyopadhyay’s Pather Panchali novel story and Satyajit Ray’s Pather Panchali movie story. In Pather Panchali movie, Satyajit Ray has added many sequences’ story that is not in the original novel though he adapted the film story from ‘Pather Panchali’ novel. Similarly, Sanjay Leela Bhansali’s ‘Padmaavat’ movie has been adapted from the poem of Malik Muhammad Jayasi’s poem ‘Padmavat’. But there are many differences between the actual poem story and the film plot summery. This is why I have pointed out the two stories from the film and the poem. For example; Sultan Alauddin Khilji did not kill Maharawal Ratan Singh in the epic poem. Ratan Singh and Devpal have killed each other. But in Sanjay Leela Bhansali’s movie ‘Padmaavat’ it has been shown that Sultan Alauddin Khilji has betrayed with Ratan Singh and killed him. So, there are many differences between the two stories. Director Sanjay Leela Bhansali has adapted the film story in such way director Satyajit Ray had adapted his Pather Panchali film story. But here, Sanjay Leela Bhansali has shown nothing but a tale of good Vs evil. In this film, he has upheld the Rajput king, queen and everyone from Rajput Empire as good. On the other hand, he has made Khilji dynasty or Khilji troops or everyone from Khilji Empire as evil. But there is exception that Sanjay Leela has made a character Mehrunissa empress of Delhi Sultanate as good. In Jayasi’s poem, he has written, Ratan Singh went to Singhal kingdom only for love, only to marry Padmavati. But Sanjay Leela Bhansali has shown in his movie that Ratan Singh has gone Singhal to search pearls for his wife Nagmati. But there some own creation of the director for example; when the pavilions are burning from the firing arrows from the Rajput troops, Sultan is looking everything from bed at night. Besides, in another sequence, all the Khilji troops want to go back to Delhi but Sultan shows his strategy to them and they stop themselves to go back from Chittor to Delhi. Besides, in front of sultan, on the table, there are many food items he engulfs all food items like animal. It is Director’s own creation. But is it controversial or not we will know later. Another example; sultan is changing the two food plates at the time of eating food into the fortress.  Besides, in the battle, Ratan Singh and Sultan Alauddin Khilji both of them are fighting but Malik Kafur killed Ratan Singh with his arrows. Actually, it is not in Jayasi’s poem. Ratan Singh and Devpal killed each other. But in ‘Padmaavat’ director has shown that Malik Kafur has killed Ratan Singh. For this reason, we should know the actual history of the two historical figures Maharawal Ratan Singh and Delhi Sultan Alauddin Khilji. Many historians told that the history Maharawal Ratan Singh and Sultan Alauddin Khilji are the two prominent historical figures but there is no clue in history that Rani Padmavati is a historical figure. Sufi poet Malik Muhammad Jayasi has told his own words in the poem that ‘I have made up the story and related it.’ Padmavati character is fictional and this story is poet’s imagination. So, Padmavati is not a historical figure or character.     Changing Film Story as Fictional  I have told before that it is not a historical film. it is a work of fictional and director’s imagination. Though there are some similar parts or stories that have been taken from the Sufi poet Malik Muhammad Jayasi’s ‘Padmavat’ poem (1540). Most of the story of the film has been taken from the poem. But there are some parts that are director’s imagination or own creation. The creative works of the director have been enlisted on the above that we have already known. There is no historical authenticity of the film and it is a fictional work. Director Sanjay Leela Bhansali acknowledges the recognition writing disclaimers in the film screen. His disclaimers are ‘This film ‘Padmaavat’ is inspired from the epic poem Padmavat, written by Malik Muhammad Jayasi, which is considered a work of fiction. This Film does not infer or claim historical authenticity or accuracy in terms of the names of the places, characters, sequence of events, locations, spoken languages, dance forms, costumes and/or such other details. We do not intend to dispresent, impair or disparage the beliefs, sentiments of any person(s), community(ies) and their culture(s), costume(s), practice(s) and tradition(s).’ Director Sanjay Leela Bhansali has added another disclaimer that this film does not intend to encourage or support ‘Sati’ or such other practices.’ He also added that ‘all the animals & birds in this film have been treated with extreme love, care & concern in the presence of veterinarian doctors. Computer graphics were used for deer, horses, camels, elephants, bullocks, love birds, ostrich, white Macaw and parrots. Animatronics horses were used for better quality purpose.’ So, there is no controversy from this side that it is a fictional work and not a historical film. Director only has upheld the background and set design of the film of 1303 AD medieval India. He has upheld some historical figures or historical characters for example; Maharawal Ratan Singh the king of Chittor and Sultan Alauddin Khilji of Delhi but here Padmavati character is not historical figure. It is an imaginary character of the Sufi Poet Malik Muhammad Jayasi.     Political and historical controversy between the Hindus & the Muslims     In reality, the main problem of the film is with the history itself. The main controversial part of the film is its political and historical background. The Hindus and the Muslims of India protested before releasing the movie with their different ideology. The Hindus are thinking that it is a distortion of Rajput community history but the Muslims are thinking that here, the Muslims are shown very roughly specially the Muslim ruler Alauddin Khilji.     Besides, there are many objections and claims of the Hindus and the Muslims about the history and film contents. Some Hindus of India have objected it such a way that the content of the film, claiming, it insults the Rajput community and is a distortion of history, which hurts their religious sentiments.’ Some others claim about its ‘Dream Sequence’ or they object that it is a romantic scene between Rani Padmavati and Alauddin Khilji.’ Some others Hindus from Rajput community claim that film directors are portraying the film as a love story between Alauddin Khilji and Rani Padmavati, which is distortion of history.’ One BJP (Bharatiya Janata Party) MP claims ‘We will not tolerate any distortion of our history.’ Actually, their main controversy about the film is that ‘Changing the story of the film.’ A BJP MLA claims that ‘I will not allow any distortion of the valiant history of Rajsthan.’ Most of the Rajput community claims that ‘the filmmaker has presented distorted facts about Rani Padmavati which is an insult to the Rajput community.’ Before releasing the cinema, many BJP leaders protested to stop its release because they did not want any distortion of their Rajput community history.’ A BJP MLA claims that ‘if the film depicts history without any distortion and highlights the valour of Rajputs, we will welcome it. But if it portrays them in poor light then we will not allow its release in theatres.’ But at last director Sanjay Leela Bhansali becomes winner through Indian law and court. It has been released. Many Rajput community organizations protested to stop its release specially ‘Shri Rajput Karni sena’ an organization of Rajput community protested to ban the film. Besides, several Muslim leaders protested to ban the film because they claim that the film is misleading the history of Delhi Sultan Alauddin Khilji.’ The film has been banned in Malaysia for negative portray of Sultan Alauddin Khilji, a Muslim ruler.’ Besides, many unfortunate events have been occurred during the pre-production and production time. Many filmic ingredients have been broken, director was slapped on set, hair was pulled and the lead actress was threatened with beheading or having her nose cut off and many unnatural events.  Some English critics claim that Padmaavat does not match with Padmavati. But the main thing is it is a work of fiction. The professor of history at Rajsthan University Krishna Gopal Sharma tells that ‘Padmini was 15th wife of Maharawal Ratan Singh; Alauddin Khilji was enamored by Padmini’s beauty and saw her reflection in water is a myth and its root from Padmavat poem written by Malik Muhammad Jayasi.’                 Historical and Political Criticism  If a film is historical, the film cannot be a fictional film. History is the political story of past. Fiction is something imaginary that is not related to history. History is the true story of past. For example; Mangal pandey: The Rising (2005) is a historical film directed by Ketan Mehta and the lead actor is Aamir Khan. It does not expose any false or imaginary events. But it only expresses the truth of past political background of the year 1857 of Indian subcontinent. Director Sanjay Leela Bhansali has made the film story mixed with political history and imaginary story. So, it is not a historical film. It has some background of history. Director Sanjay Leela Bhansali has told that the film is not historical; it is imaginary and fictional work. Sufi poet Malik Muhammad Jayasi also said that the story of the poem is not historical but is imaginary and a work of fiction. Director Sanjay Leela Bhansali has acknowledged that. But most of the Rajput communities do not know that the character Padmavati is not a historical figure but an imaginary character only. Amir Khashru one of the famous historians of that Time has written the history about Maharawal Ratan Singh and Sultan Alauddin Khilji but he did not refer any kind of historical figure named Padmavati. When the audiences will watch the movie, at the first sight, they will tell that the movie is historical. But the audiences, who know the actual history and political background of Sultan Alauddin Khilji and Maharawal Ratan Singh, can tell that this is not a historical film but a fictional film. Besides, there are many scenes which are portraying false story of Sultan Alauddin Khilji. Actually, the whole film portrays the Muslims very roughly. Director Sanjay Leela Bhansali portrays the Rajputs as good and the Muslims as evil.     Freedom of speech ends where defamation begins  Before, I have said that in this film director has portrayed the Muslims as evil. It is not historical film but he has taken the shelter of history and has portrayed it with the help of imagination. It is fictional it is not a historical film but a work of fiction. We all know that freedom of speech is basic right for the people in most of the countries in the world. But when defamation begins, the freedom of speech is ended. In this film portraying the Muslims as evil is also defamation. It is a fictional work but director has no right to uphold the Muslims in such way.  It is not a historical film, it is a fictional film. Then it is a work of fiction but it’s nothing but a tale of good Vs evil. We should keep in mind that there are two kinds of religious people here; Hindus and Muslims. And the main controversy to the Muslims here that Muslims are shown very roughly or Muslims are evil and Hindus are good. Director has directed it through his own imagination and perspective but it is unethical to defame only the Muslims here, overall. Most of the people of India are Hindus and there are hardy some Muslims. So, as much as the Hindus pretested against the film to be released, the Muslims could not pretest. Its main cause would be now conservative BJP is the government Party in India and the Muslims cannot talk against them; it is natural. It is the most controversial film to the religious people of Indians as well as all over the world.        References   1. Padmaavat movie (2018)  2. Villagevoice.com   3. Theguardian.com  4.  Hollywoodreporter.com   5. Theglobeandmail.com   6.  Nytimes.com   7. Youtube.com   8. Youtube.com   9. Metacritic.com   10. Bollywoodhungama.com   11. Imdb.com   12. Rottentomatoes.com   13. Wikipedia.com
Two Historical Figures: Maharawal Ratan Singh & Sultan Alauddin Khilji: Padmaavat (2018)

Besides, in the battle, Ratan Singh and Sultan Alauddin Khilji both of them are fighting but Malik Kafur killed Ratan Singh with his arrows. Actually, it is not in Jayasi’s poem. Ratan Singh and Devpal killed each other. But in ‘Padmaavat’ director has shown that Malik Kafur has killed Ratan Singh. For this reason, we should know the actual history of the two historical figures Maharawal Ratan Singh and Delhi Sultan Alauddin Khilji. Many historians told that the history Maharawal Ratan Singh and Sultan Alauddin Khilji are the two prominent historical figures but there is no clue in history that Rani Padmavati is a historical figure. Sufi poet Malik Muhammad Jayasi has told his own words in the poem that ‘I have made up the story and related it.’ Padmavati character is fictional and this story is poet’s imagination. So, Padmavati is not a historical figure or character.


Changing Film Story as Fictional
I have told before that it is not a historical film. it is a work of fictional and director’s imagination. Though there are some similar parts or stories that have been taken from the Sufi poet Malik Muhammad Jayasi’s ‘Padmavat’ poem (1540). Most of the story of the film has been taken from the poem. But there are some parts that are director’s imagination or own creation. The creative works of the director have been enlisted on the above that we have already known. There is no historical authenticity of the film and it is a fictional work. Director Sanjay Leela Bhansali acknowledges the recognition writing disclaimers in the film screen. His disclaimers are ‘This film ‘Padmaavat’ is inspired from the epic poem Padmavat, written by Malik Muhammad Jayasi, which is considered a work of fiction. This Film does not infer or claim historical authenticity or accuracy in terms of the names of the places, characters, sequence of events, locations, spoken languages, dance forms, costumes and/or such other details. We do not intend to dispresent, impair or disparage the beliefs, sentiments of any person(s), community(ies) and their culture(s), costume(s), practice(s) and tradition(s).’ Director Sanjay Leela Bhansali has added another disclaimer that this film does not intend to encourage or support ‘Sati’ or such other practices.’ He also added that ‘all the animals & birds in this film have been treated with extreme love, care & concern in the presence of veterinarian doctors. Computer graphics were used for deer, horses, camels, elephants, bullocks, love birds, ostrich, white Macaw and parrots. Animatronics horses were used for better quality purpose.’ So, there is no controversy from this side that it is a fictional work and not a historical film. Director only has upheld the background and set design of the film of 1303 AD medieval India. He has upheld some historical figures or historical characters for example; Maharawal Ratan Singh the king of Chittor and Sultan Alauddin Khilji of Delhi but here Padmavati character is not historical figure. It is an imaginary character of the Sufi Poet Malik Muhammad Jayasi.

Political and historical controversy between the Hindus & the Muslims

In reality, the main problem of the film is with the history itself. The main controversial part of the film is its political and historical background. The Hindus and the Muslims of India protested before releasing the movie with their different ideology. The Hindus are thinking that it is a distortion of Rajput community history but the Muslims are thinking that here, the Muslims are shown very roughly specially the Muslim ruler Alauddin Khilji.
 
Padmaavat, Not a Historical Film  Padmaavat is the most controversial film ever in India. The film is directed, co-produced, co-edited and music composed by Sanjay Leela Bhansali in 2018. It is the ninth highest-grossing film in India. Sanjay Leela Bhansali is very popular film director in India for his extra ordinary works. For example Devdas (2002), Goliyon Ki Rasleela Ram-Leela (2013, Bajirao Mastani (2015) are the best. Padmaavat is the film of highest amount of budget from his all films. It has achieved most criticisms from the film critics and public audiences.     Performers as characters of the film  There are many performers role played by of the characters in the film. But the most important performers as the characters of the film are;  Deepika Padukone as Rani Padmavati  Shahid Kapoor as Maharawal Ratan Singh  Ranveer Singh as Sultan Alauddin Khilji  Aditi Rao Hydari as Mehrunissa  Jim Sarbh as Malik Kafur   Anupriya Goenka as Nagmati  Ujjwal Chopra as Gora Singh     Plot Summery  The film is started with a sequence of Sultan Jalal-Uddin Khilji in Afghanistan. After, Khilji Dynasty is started in Delhi. Jala Uddin’s nephew Alauddin Khilji is the most powerful chief of the Khilji troops. He loots Devagiri, defeats the most powerful Mongols in a battle and after occupies Kara. The plot of the film is of 1303 AD medieval India. At the same time the king of Mewar journeys to Singhal to find out pearls for his wife Nagmati. In the jungle, the princess of Singhal is hunting deer. But unfortunately, her arrow is gone into king’s chest. She taks him into a cave and he recovers in her nursing. They fall in love with each other. At that time princess Padmavati was the most beautiful and skilled monarchy. Maharawal Ratan Singh, the king of Mewar finds out princess instead of pearls. The king of Singhal, Gandharvsen, marries his daughter with the king Ratan Singh. They come back to Chittor.     The people of Chittor celebrate the day for the pride of Chittor. Ratan Singh takes Radmavati to their courtier, Raghav Chetan to take blessing. But Ratan Singh banishes him for his fraudulence. On the other side, Alauddin Khilji satisfies his uncle’s mind taking the victories. He marries his daughter Mehrunissa with Alauddin. But after some days, Alauddin kills his uncle and with the help of slave Malik Kafur gifted by his uncle. Alauddin becomes the new sultan of Delhi. He fulfilled his every desire. When the courtier of Chittor, Raghav Chetan comes to the fort, he expresses the Sultan telling about the beauty of the queen Padmavati. Sultan Alauddin Khilji starts his journey with troops for Chittor to do a big war. In Chittor, many troops are killed by the technique of Ratan Singh but Alauddin does not go back to Delhi. At last staying there for six months, Alauddin Khilji himself goes to Ratan Singh’s fort to do friendship before leaving Chittor. But strategically, Alauddin takes Ratan Singh to Delhi so that Rani Padmavati surely comes to Delhi. Alauddin Khilji accepts all the conditions of Padmavati and kills the courtier. Padmavati journeys to Delhi with 800 men instead of maids. At the same time, Itat Khan tries to kill Alauddin with arrows mixing poison. But he escapes and later kills Itat Khan. Wounded Alauddin cannot meet Padmavati because Mehrunissa helps her to escape Ratan Singh. They flee away from the fort through a tunnel. A little battle is happened. Chief Gora Singh, Badal Singh and all the troops are killed but Padmavati and Ratan Singh reaches Chittor safely. The people of Chittor celebrate to get back their king praise to their queen to escape their king. But Alauddin Khilji takes huge troops in Chittor for a big battle. A battle is started between Alauddin Khilji and Ratan Singh. Ratan Singh is killed by Malik Kafur’s arrows. All the troops of Ratan Singh are killed. But Rani Padmavati orders all the women to perform Jauhar (mass self-immolation) closing the gate of the fort. All the women with Rani Padmavati and Nagmati sacrifice their life to protect their dignity.        Story Adaptation  The story of the film is adapted from an epic poem ‘Padmavat’ written by Sufi Poet Malik Muhammad Jayasi in 1540. He lived in Uttar Pradesh at that time. Epic Poem ‘Padmavat’ is written in the Hindustani language of Awadhi and originally in the Persian Nastaliq language. The poem is translated in many languages. There is a Bengali version too. It is a fictional poem about Alauddin Khilji’s desire about the queen Padmavati of Chittor. In this epic poem Alauddin Khilji and Maharawal Ratan Singh are the historical figures but Ratan Sen’s or ratan Singh’s wife queen Padmavati is a fictional character, not a historical character. During the second emperor of the Mughal Empire, Humayun (1530-1540) poet Malik Muhammad Jayasi wrote the poem. But he enlisted the matters in the poem of beginning of 14th century (1303 AD) when Sulatan Alauddin Khilji occupied Chittor. ‘Padmavat’ is the ultimate source of some other adaptation works. Albert Roussel directed Opera ‘Padmavat’ (1923) in Paris, France.  Besides, a Tamil film named ‘Chittor Rani Padmini’ (1963) was directed by Chitrapu Narayana Rao. A Hindi film ‘Maharani Padmini’ (1964) was directed by Jashwat Jhaveri in 1964. All the films have been directed adapting the poem story ‘Padmavat’.     Plot of the Poem  Gandharvsen was the king of Singhal. The princess of Singhal Padmavati was very beautiful. The women of Singhal was called Padmini specially they were beautiful and had four kinds of skill or quality. Padmavati had a talking parrot named Hiraman. Hiraman was very close friend to the princess, Padmavati. They together studied the Vedas, the Hindu scriptures. But the king of Singhal resented the parrot’s closeness to his daughter. So, he wanted to kill the parrot. But the parrot bade good bye to the princess and few away in the jungle. A bird catcher caught the parrot and sold it near the Chittor Empire to a Brahmin. The Brahmin took it to the king of Chittor Maharawal Ratan Sen. Ratan Sen was very fond of to the parrot because the parrot could talk sweetly. The parrot talked about the beauty of the princess of Singhal Ratan Sen started his journey to marry Padmavati with 16,000 followers with the parrot’s guide. They went to Singhal after crossing seven seas and Ratan Sen came to a temple and commenced austerities to seek Padmavati. Padmavati came to the temple after listening from the parrot but did not meet with the ascetic. She returned to the palace. Ratan Sen was very upset and committed to suicide. But he was interrupted by the deities Shiva and Parvati. On Shiva’s advice, they attack on the royal fortress of Singhal kingdom. But they are defeated and when Ratan Sen was about to be executed, the parrot expressed his identity; the king of Chittor. At that time Gandharvsen released the prisoners and marries his daughter with the king Ratan Sen. He also arranged 16,000 Padmini women as companion for the 16,000 men. Ratan Sen started his journey to return Chittor after hearing the message from a bird sent by his wife Nagmati. But at the sea, all the men and women were killed by a strong storm except Padmavati and Ratan Sen. Lakshmi was the daughter of the god Ocean. She wanted to test Ratan Sen’s love to his wife Padmavati. He succeeded and got many gifts from Lakshmi. They came back to Chittor. Ratan Sen banished the courtier Raghav Chetan for fraudulence in a test.     Sometimes, rivalry developed between Ratan Sen’s two wives, Nagmati and Padmavati. Raghav Chetan went to the fort of Sultan Alauddin Khilji and expressed the exceptional beauty of Chittor’s queen, Padmavati. Sultan Alauddin Khilji wanted to obtain Padmavati and besieged Chittor. But after failing to conquer Chittor, he feigned a peace of treaty with Ratan Sen and took him to Delhi. Rani Padmavati ordered Gora and Badal to help Ratan Sen. Badal disguised as Padmavati, Gora and the followers rescued Ratan Sen. But Gora was killed and Badal reached Chittor with Ratan Sen safely. When Ratan Sen was imprisoned in Delhi, Devpal the Rajput king of Chittor’s neighbor Kumbhalner, proposed to marry Padmavati through an emissary. But hearing this, Ratan Sen, after coming Chittor, decided to punish Devpal. A battle is started between Ratan Sen and Devpal. Unfortunately, Ratan Sen and Devpal killed each other. At that time, Alauddin Khilji again attacked Chittor but Padmavati and Nagmati committed self immolation (Sati) on Ratan Sen’s funeral pyre. All the men of Chittor fought to death against Alauddin Khilji and the women of Chittor committed mass self immolation (Jauhar). Alauddin Khilji acquired nothing but an empty fortress. He picked up the ashes of Ratan Sen and his wives Nagmati and Padmavati and lamented that he ‘wanted to avoid this’. He continued ‘desire is insatiable, permanent/but this world is illusory and transient/insatiable desire man continues to have/till life is over and he reaches his grave.’           Analysis of Film Story, Poem Story and Actual History  ‘Padmaavat’ is an action drama film not a historical film and it does not reflect the history of the historical figures, Maharawal Ratan Singh and Sultan Alauddin Khilji. ‘Padmaavat’ movie also does not reflect the poem story of the famous Sufi Poet Malik Muhammad Jayasi. Sanjay Leela Bhansali has adapted the film story in his own way. Actually, if we look at Satyajit ray’s work ‘Pather Panchali’ (1955), we will get the right answer. There are many differences between Bibhutibhushan Bandyopadhyay’s Pather Panchali novel story and Satyajit Ray’s Pather Panchali movie story. In Pather Panchali movie, Satyajit Ray has added many sequences’ story that is not in the original novel though he adapted the film story from ‘Pather Panchali’ novel. Similarly, Sanjay Leela Bhansali’s ‘Padmaavat’ movie has been adapted from the poem of Malik Muhammad Jayasi’s poem ‘Padmavat’. But there are many differences between the actual poem story and the film plot summery. This is why I have pointed out the two stories from the film and the poem. For example; Sultan Alauddin Khilji did not kill Maharawal Ratan Singh in the epic poem. Ratan Singh and Devpal have killed each other. But in Sanjay Leela Bhansali’s movie ‘Padmaavat’ it has been shown that Sultan Alauddin Khilji has betrayed with Ratan Singh and killed him. So, there are many differences between the two stories. Director Sanjay Leela Bhansali has adapted the film story in such way director Satyajit Ray had adapted his Pather Panchali film story. But here, Sanjay Leela Bhansali has shown nothing but a tale of good Vs evil. In this film, he has upheld the Rajput king, queen and everyone from Rajput Empire as good. On the other hand, he has made Khilji dynasty or Khilji troops or everyone from Khilji Empire as evil. But there is exception that Sanjay Leela has made a character Mehrunissa empress of Delhi Sultanate as good. In Jayasi’s poem, he has written, Ratan Singh went to Singhal kingdom only for love, only to marry Padmavati. But Sanjay Leela Bhansali has shown in his movie that Ratan Singh has gone Singhal to search pearls for his wife Nagmati. But there some own creation of the director for example; when the pavilions are burning from the firing arrows from the Rajput troops, Sultan is looking everything from bed at night. Besides, in another sequence, all the Khilji troops want to go back to Delhi but Sultan shows his strategy to them and they stop themselves to go back from Chittor to Delhi. Besides, in front of sultan, on the table, there are many food items he engulfs all food items like animal. It is Director’s own creation. But is it controversial or not we will know later. Another example; sultan is changing the two food plates at the time of eating food into the fortress.  Besides, in the battle, Ratan Singh and Sultan Alauddin Khilji both of them are fighting but Malik Kafur killed Ratan Singh with his arrows. Actually, it is not in Jayasi’s poem. Ratan Singh and Devpal killed each other. But in ‘Padmaavat’ director has shown that Malik Kafur has killed Ratan Singh. For this reason, we should know the actual history of the two historical figures Maharawal Ratan Singh and Delhi Sultan Alauddin Khilji. Many historians told that the history Maharawal Ratan Singh and Sultan Alauddin Khilji are the two prominent historical figures but there is no clue in history that Rani Padmavati is a historical figure. Sufi poet Malik Muhammad Jayasi has told his own words in the poem that ‘I have made up the story and related it.’ Padmavati character is fictional and this story is poet’s imagination. So, Padmavati is not a historical figure or character.     Changing Film Story as Fictional  I have told before that it is not a historical film. it is a work of fictional and director’s imagination. Though there are some similar parts or stories that have been taken from the Sufi poet Malik Muhammad Jayasi’s ‘Padmavat’ poem (1540). Most of the story of the film has been taken from the poem. But there are some parts that are director’s imagination or own creation. The creative works of the director have been enlisted on the above that we have already known. There is no historical authenticity of the film and it is a fictional work. Director Sanjay Leela Bhansali acknowledges the recognition writing disclaimers in the film screen. His disclaimers are ‘This film ‘Padmaavat’ is inspired from the epic poem Padmavat, written by Malik Muhammad Jayasi, which is considered a work of fiction. This Film does not infer or claim historical authenticity or accuracy in terms of the names of the places, characters, sequence of events, locations, spoken languages, dance forms, costumes and/or such other details. We do not intend to dispresent, impair or disparage the beliefs, sentiments of any person(s), community(ies) and their culture(s), costume(s), practice(s) and tradition(s).’ Director Sanjay Leela Bhansali has added another disclaimer that this film does not intend to encourage or support ‘Sati’ or such other practices.’ He also added that ‘all the animals & birds in this film have been treated with extreme love, care & concern in the presence of veterinarian doctors. Computer graphics were used for deer, horses, camels, elephants, bullocks, love birds, ostrich, white Macaw and parrots. Animatronics horses were used for better quality purpose.’ So, there is no controversy from this side that it is a fictional work and not a historical film. Director only has upheld the background and set design of the film of 1303 AD medieval India. He has upheld some historical figures or historical characters for example; Maharawal Ratan Singh the king of Chittor and Sultan Alauddin Khilji of Delhi but here Padmavati character is not historical figure. It is an imaginary character of the Sufi Poet Malik Muhammad Jayasi.     Political and historical controversy between the Hindus & the Muslims     In reality, the main problem of the film is with the history itself. The main controversial part of the film is its political and historical background. The Hindus and the Muslims of India protested before releasing the movie with their different ideology. The Hindus are thinking that it is a distortion of Rajput community history but the Muslims are thinking that here, the Muslims are shown very roughly specially the Muslim ruler Alauddin Khilji.     Besides, there are many objections and claims of the Hindus and the Muslims about the history and film contents. Some Hindus of India have objected it such a way that the content of the film, claiming, it insults the Rajput community and is a distortion of history, which hurts their religious sentiments.’ Some others claim about its ‘Dream Sequence’ or they object that it is a romantic scene between Rani Padmavati and Alauddin Khilji.’ Some others Hindus from Rajput community claim that film directors are portraying the film as a love story between Alauddin Khilji and Rani Padmavati, which is distortion of history.’ One BJP (Bharatiya Janata Party) MP claims ‘We will not tolerate any distortion of our history.’ Actually, their main controversy about the film is that ‘Changing the story of the film.’ A BJP MLA claims that ‘I will not allow any distortion of the valiant history of Rajsthan.’ Most of the Rajput community claims that ‘the filmmaker has presented distorted facts about Rani Padmavati which is an insult to the Rajput community.’ Before releasing the cinema, many BJP leaders protested to stop its release because they did not want any distortion of their Rajput community history.’ A BJP MLA claims that ‘if the film depicts history without any distortion and highlights the valour of Rajputs, we will welcome it. But if it portrays them in poor light then we will not allow its release in theatres.’ But at last director Sanjay Leela Bhansali becomes winner through Indian law and court. It has been released. Many Rajput community organizations protested to stop its release specially ‘Shri Rajput Karni sena’ an organization of Rajput community protested to ban the film. Besides, several Muslim leaders protested to ban the film because they claim that the film is misleading the history of Delhi Sultan Alauddin Khilji.’ The film has been banned in Malaysia for negative portray of Sultan Alauddin Khilji, a Muslim ruler.’ Besides, many unfortunate events have been occurred during the pre-production and production time. Many filmic ingredients have been broken, director was slapped on set, hair was pulled and the lead actress was threatened with beheading or having her nose cut off and many unnatural events.  Some English critics claim that Padmaavat does not match with Padmavati. But the main thing is it is a work of fiction. The professor of history at Rajsthan University Krishna Gopal Sharma tells that ‘Padmini was 15th wife of Maharawal Ratan Singh; Alauddin Khilji was enamored by Padmini’s beauty and saw her reflection in water is a myth and its root from Padmavat poem written by Malik Muhammad Jayasi.’                 Historical and Political Criticism  If a film is historical, the film cannot be a fictional film. History is the political story of past. Fiction is something imaginary that is not related to history. History is the true story of past. For example; Mangal pandey: The Rising (2005) is a historical film directed by Ketan Mehta and the lead actor is Aamir Khan. It does not expose any false or imaginary events. But it only expresses the truth of past political background of the year 1857 of Indian subcontinent. Director Sanjay Leela Bhansali has made the film story mixed with political history and imaginary story. So, it is not a historical film. It has some background of history. Director Sanjay Leela Bhansali has told that the film is not historical; it is imaginary and fictional work. Sufi poet Malik Muhammad Jayasi also said that the story of the poem is not historical but is imaginary and a work of fiction. Director Sanjay Leela Bhansali has acknowledged that. But most of the Rajput communities do not know that the character Padmavati is not a historical figure but an imaginary character only. Amir Khashru one of the famous historians of that Time has written the history about Maharawal Ratan Singh and Sultan Alauddin Khilji but he did not refer any kind of historical figure named Padmavati. When the audiences will watch the movie, at the first sight, they will tell that the movie is historical. But the audiences, who know the actual history and political background of Sultan Alauddin Khilji and Maharawal Ratan Singh, can tell that this is not a historical film but a fictional film. Besides, there are many scenes which are portraying false story of Sultan Alauddin Khilji. Actually, the whole film portrays the Muslims very roughly. Director Sanjay Leela Bhansali portrays the Rajputs as good and the Muslims as evil.     Freedom of speech ends where defamation begins  Before, I have said that in this film director has portrayed the Muslims as evil. It is not historical film but he has taken the shelter of history and has portrayed it with the help of imagination. It is fictional it is not a historical film but a work of fiction. We all know that freedom of speech is basic right for the people in most of the countries in the world. But when defamation begins, the freedom of speech is ended. In this film portraying the Muslims as evil is also defamation. It is a fictional work but director has no right to uphold the Muslims in such way.  It is not a historical film, it is a fictional film. Then it is a work of fiction but it’s nothing but a tale of good Vs evil. We should keep in mind that there are two kinds of religious people here; Hindus and Muslims. And the main controversy to the Muslims here that Muslims are shown very roughly or Muslims are evil and Hindus are good. Director has directed it through his own imagination and perspective but it is unethical to defame only the Muslims here, overall. Most of the people of India are Hindus and there are hardy some Muslims. So, as much as the Hindus pretested against the film to be released, the Muslims could not pretest. Its main cause would be now conservative BJP is the government Party in India and the Muslims cannot talk against them; it is natural. It is the most controversial film to the religious people of Indians as well as all over the world.        References   1. Padmaavat movie (2018)  2. Villagevoice.com   3. Theguardian.com  4.  Hollywoodreporter.com   5. Theglobeandmail.com   6.  Nytimes.com   7. Youtube.com   8. Youtube.com   9. Metacritic.com   10. Bollywoodhungama.com   11. Imdb.com   12. Rottentomatoes.com   13. Wikipedia.com
Sultan Alauddin Khilji is having meal like animal: Padmaavat (2018)
Besides, there are many objections and claims of the Hindus and the Muslims about the history and film contents. Some Hindus of India have objected it such a way that the content of the film, claiming, it insults the Rajput community and is a distortion of history, which hurts their religious sentiments.’ Some others claim about its ‘Dream Sequence’ or they object that it is a romantic scene between Rani Padmavati and Alauddin Khilji.’ Some others Hindus from Rajput community claim that film directors are portraying the film as a love story between Alauddin Khilji and Rani Padmavati, which is distortion of history.’ One BJP (Bharatiya Janata Party) MP claims ‘We will not tolerate any distortion of our history.’ Actually, their main controversy about the film is that ‘Changing the story of the film.’ A BJP MLA claims that ‘I will not allow any distortion of the valiant history of Rajsthan.’ Most of the Rajput community claims that ‘the filmmaker has presented distorted facts about Rani Padmavati which is an insult to the Rajput community.’ Before releasing the cinema, many BJP leaders protested to stop its release because they did not want any distortion of their Rajput community history.’ A BJP MLA claims that ‘if the film depicts history without any distortion and highlights the valour of Rajputs, we will welcome it. But if it portrays them in poor light then we will not allow its release in theatres.’ But at last director Sanjay Leela Bhansali becomes winner through Indian law and court. It has been released. Many Rajput community organizations protested to stop its release specially ‘Shri Rajput Karni sena’ an organization of Rajput community protested to ban the film. Besides, several Muslim leaders protested to ban the film because they claim that the film is misleading the history of Delhi Sultan Alauddin Khilji.’ The film has been banned in Malaysia for negative portray of Sultan Alauddin Khilji, a Muslim ruler.’ Besides, many unfortunate events have been occurred during the pre-production and production time. Many filmic ingredients have been broken, director was slapped on set, hair was pulled and the lead actress was threatened with beheading or having her nose cut off and many unnatural events.  Some English critics claim that Padmaavat does not match with Padmavati. But the main thing is it is a work of fiction. The professor of history at Rajsthan University Krishna Gopal Sharma tells that ‘Padmini was 15th wife of Maharawal Ratan Singh; Alauddin Khilji was enamored by Padmini’s beauty and saw her reflection in water is a myth and its root from Padmavat poem written by Malik Muhammad Jayasi.’





Historical and Political Criticism
If a film is historical, the film cannot be a fictional film. History is the political story of past. Fiction is something imaginary that is not related to history. History is the true story of past. For example; Mangal pandey: The Rising (2005) is a historical film directed by Ketan Mehta and the lead actor is Aamir Khan. It does not expose any false or imaginary events. But it only expresses the truth of past political background of the year 1857 of Indian subcontinent. Director Sanjay Leela Bhansali has made the film story mixed with political history and imaginary story. So, it is not a historical film. It has some background of history. Director Sanjay Leela Bhansali has told that the film is not historical; it is imaginary and fictional work. Sufi poet Malik Muhammad Jayasi also said that the story of the poem is not historical but is imaginary and a work of fiction. Director Sanjay Leela Bhansali has acknowledged that. But most of the Rajput communities do not know that the character Padmavati is not a historical figure but an imaginary character only. Amir Khashru one of the famous historians of that Time has written the history about Maharawal Ratan Singh and Sultan Alauddin Khilji but he did not refer any kind of historical figure named Padmavati. When the audiences will watch the movie, at the first sight, they will tell that the movie is historical. But the audiences, who know the actual history and political background of Sultan Alauddin Khilji and Maharawal Ratan Singh, can tell that this is not a historical film but a fictional film. Besides, there are many scenes which are portraying false story of Sultan Alauddin Khilji. Actually, the whole film portrays the Muslims very roughly. Director Sanjay Leela Bhansali portrays the Rajputs as good and the Muslims as evil.


Freedom of speech ends where defamation begins
Before, I have said that in this film director has portrayed the Muslims as evil. It is not historical film but he has taken the shelter of history and has portrayed it with the help of imagination. It is fictional it is not a historical film but a work of fiction. We all know that freedom of speech is basic right for the people in most of the countries in the world. But when defamation begins, the freedom of speech is ended. In this film portraying the Muslims as evil is also defamation. It is a fictional work but director has no right to uphold the Muslims in such way.
It is not a historical film, it is a fictional film. Then it is a work of fiction but it’s nothing but a tale of good Vs evil. We should keep in mind that there are two kinds of religious people here; Hindus and Muslims. And the main controversy to the Muslims here that Muslims are shown very roughly or Muslims are evil and Hindus are good. Director has directed it through his own imagination and perspective but it is unethical to defame only the Muslims here, overall. Most of the people of India are Hindus and there are hardly some Muslims. So, as much as the Hindus pretested against the film to be released, the Muslims could not pretest. Its main cause would be now conservative BJP is the government Party in India and the Muslims cannot talk against them; it is natural. It is the most controversial film to the religious people of Indians as well as all over the world.


References 
1. Padmaavat movie (2018)
6.  Nytimes.com 
11. Imdb.com 


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