Saturday, May 5, 2018

Movies Economics, Italian Neorealism & French New Wave

Movies Economics    A short history of the world's movie economics is discussed below:-          1.    William Kennedy Laurie Dickson was the chief experimenter in working of Thomas Edison and demonstrated Crude system of projection in 1889.        2.    Edison called his individual viewer the ‘Kinetoscope’ in 1890s.        3.    28th December, 1895 the Lumieres first projected their films in Paris.        4.    23rd April, 1896 Edison’s first formal public performance of large screen communal cinema took place in New York.        5.    The Lumieres invented ‘Cinematographe’ that is very similar to Edison’s kinematograph projector.        6.    In England, the Frenchman Louis Augustin Le Prince and the Englishman William Friese-Greene both developed a workable portable camera/projection systems in the late 1880s.        7.    The Italian Filoteo Alberini took some significant step before 1896.        8.    In Germany, Max and Emil Skladanowsky developed their Bioscope.        9.    In England, Robert W. Paul projected films with his version of Edison’s machine.         10.  In 1896 and 1897, the use of ‘Cinematographe’ , ‘Edison’s Kinetograph’ and similar machine spread widely.        11.  In 1890s, one of the first short programs was the famous ‘Fred Ott’s Sneeze’.        12. Dickson left Edison’s Kinetoscope and joined to the American Mutoscope and Biograph Company.        13.  J-Stuart Blackton formed the Vitagraph Company in New York.        14. In France, George Melies, a stage magician saw the illusionary power of the medium and entered production.        15. In France, Charles Path established a large studio and controlled the French Film Industry.        16. Before 1914, Pathe distributed films in the U.S alone. Then Italian influence in those years wide spread.        17.  In 1905, the concept of film theatre was established.        18.  In 1897, the Lumieres opened the first establishment to the showing of movies.        19.  In 1902, Thomas L. Tally’s Electric theatre (Los Angeles) became the first American Film theatre.        20.  By 1908 there were more than five thousand ‘Nickelodeons’ across the country.        21. In January, 1909 The Motion Pictures Patents Company founded by the nine producers; (1) Edison (2) Biograph (3) Vitagraph (4) Essanay (5) Selig (6) Lubin (7) Kalem (8) Melies (9) Pathe with the distributor George Kleine.        22.  Carl Laemmle’s Independent Motion Picture Company (‘IMP’) later became universal Studios.        23. By 1912 the Patent Company and the General Film Company controlled more than half of the Ten thousand exhibition outlets- ‘Nickelodeons’.        24. D.W. Griffith the filmmaker who had done most to ensure the success of Biograph.        25. ‘The Birth of a Nation (1915) cost $110,000. And returned $20 million or $50 million to $100 million.        26. Adolph Zukor acquired Paramount Pictures Corporation, a distribution and exhibition Company own by Jesse Lasky.        27. Carl Laemmle founded the Universal Film Manufacturing Company around the nucleus of IMP.        28.  United Artists was formed in 1919 by Charles Chaplin, Mary Pickford, Douglas Fairbanks and David Griffith.        29.  Low budget producers; American International Pictures in the 1950; Roger Carman’s New World in the 1960s and New Line in the 1980s.        30.  One of the major Companies Columbia Pictures evolved by Harry Cohn. A significant producer.        31.  Throughout the 1980s and into the 2000s, the Disney brands ranked among the most successful in Hollywood.        32.  When Nazis took power in 1933, the influence of German Cinema came to an end.        33.  British Parliament passed the Cinematograph Act in 1927.        34.  By 1932, the technological shakedown period for sound was over and the outlines identifying the Hollywood system were clear.        35. Between 1930 and 1939 Michael Curtiz shot 44 films, Mervyn Leroy, 36; and John Ford, 26 films.                                              Italian Neorealism and French New Wave    Italian Neorealism:  After the fall of Benito Mussolini’s government in 1945, the Italian Film Industry faced with the crisis. The World War2 was ended. But the effects of the war were not finished. The Italian Film Industry economically faced with crisis. Roberto Rossellini produced a film ‘Rome Open City’ (1945). The effects of 2nd World War were the main elements of the film. This is the first time Roberto Rossellini took the shots out of the studio. It is about the effects of 2nd world war and its construction situation.  Film director Federic Felleni believed that Neorealism is observing any kind of reality with honest eye, which includes social, spiritual and metaphysical reality that is anything a man has inside of him.  Andre Bazin a French film critic called Neorealism “a cinema of fact” and “reconstituting reportage with a message”.  This style created a balance between real life issues and cinematic art. The first crucial Neorealist film was Roberto Rossellini’s ‘Rome Open City’ (1945) which displayed the struggling against the German Troops occupying Rome. Roberto Rossellini continued the Neorealism project by “bringing people awareness of the spiritual truth, self knowledge and obligation to others.”  Roberto Rossellini’s works influenced The French New Wave critics to become filmmakers. It was ‘Bicycle Thieves’ (1948) by Vittorio De Sica that was the most notable representation of the Italian Neorealism Style.  ‘Bicycle Thieves’ (1948) has been compared with French New Wave film ‘The 400 Blows’(1959)  as both fils have the same realist , humanist and renewed set of realist conventions.    French New Wave:  The French New Wave movement began the same way as Italian Neorealism through a film journalist magazine. In 1950s many French became film directors.The French New Wave’s main idea is low budget production. Because Jean-Luc-Godard and Francois Truffaut created films using the French New Wave style. Neorealism became an influence due to its political attitudes, worldview and innovations of film form. Italian Neorealism illustrated features and French filmmakers also could aim to. So the French filmmakers created films like Italian Neorealism style. New French Wave was born out of inspiration for Italian Nerealism and therefore the movements were connected. Jean Luc Godard created films with his own style but used the elements of Italian Neorealism. His ‘Breathless’ (1960) is also a low budget film which expresses a truthful reality. Francois Truffaut another director of French New Wave Style said ‘French directors should be the creator of their films.’ He believed that French directors have their own capability and imagination to develop their own individuality on a film. These Italian Neorealism and French New Wave have social and economic truth and the effects of 2nd world war.
Movies Economics, Italian Neorealism & French New Wave_BD Films Info
Movies Economics

A short history of the world's movie economics is discussed below:-


    1.    William Kennedy Laurie Dickson was the chief experimenter in working of Thomas Edison and demonstrated Crude system of projection in 1889.

    2.    Edison called his individual viewer the ‘Kinetoscope’ in 1890s.

    3.    28th December, 1895 the Lumieres first projected their films in Paris.

    4.    23rd April, 1896 Edison’s first formal public performance of large screen communal cinema took place in New York.

    5.    The Lumieres invented ‘Cinematographe’ that is very similar to Edison’s kinematograph projector.

    6.    In England, the Frenchman Louis Augustin Le Prince and the Englishman William Friese-Greene both developed a workable portable camera/projection systems in the late 1880s.

    7.    The Italian Filoteo Alberini took some significant step before 1896.

    8.    In Germany, Max and Emil Skladanowsky developed their Bioscope.

    9.    In England, Robert W. Paul projected films with his version of Edison’s machine. 

    10.  In 1896 and 1897, the use of ‘Cinematographe’ , ‘Edison’s Kinetograph’ and similar machine spread widely.

    11.  In 1890s, one of the first short programs was the famous ‘Fred Ott’s Sneeze’.

    12. Dickson left Edison’s Kinetoscope and joined to the American Mutoscope and Biograph Company.

    13.  J-Stuart Blackton formed the Vitagraph Company in New York.

    14. In France, George Melies, a stage magician saw the illusionary power of the medium and entered production.

    15. In France, Charles Path established a large studio and controlled the French Film Industry.

    16. Before 1914, Pathe distributed films in the U.S alone. Then Italian influence in those years wide spread.

    17.  In 1905, the concept of film theatre was established.

    18.  In 1897, the Lumieres opened the first establishment to the showing of movies.

    19.  In 1902, Thomas L. Tally’s Electric theatre (Los Angeles) became the first American Film theatre.

    20.  By 1908 there were more than five thousand ‘Nickelodeons’ across the country.

    21. In January, 1909 The Motion Pictures Patents Company founded by the nine producers; (1) Edison (2) Biograph (3) Vitagraph (4) Essanay (5) Selig (6) Lubin (7) Kalem (8) Melies (9) Pathe with the distributor George Kleine.

    22.  Carl Laemmle’s Independent Motion Picture Company (‘IMP’) later became universal Studios.

    23. By 1912 the Patent Company and the General Film Company controlled more than half of the Ten thousand exhibition outlets- ‘Nickelodeons’.

    24. D.W. Griffith the filmmaker who had done most to ensure the success of Biograph.

    25. ‘The Birth of a Nation (1915) cost $110,000. And returned $20 million or $50 million to $100 million.

    26. Adolph Zukor acquired Paramount Pictures Corporation, a distribution and exhibition Company own by Jesse Lasky.

    27. Carl Laemmle founded the Universal Film Manufacturing Company around the nucleus of IMP.

    28.  United Artists was formed in 1919 by Charles Chaplin, Mary Pickford, Douglas Fairbanks and David Griffith.

    29.  Low budget producers; American International Pictures in the 1950; Roger Carman’s New World in the 1960s and New Line in the 1980s.

    30.  One of the major Companies Columbia Pictures evolved by Harry Cohn. A significant producer.

    31.  Throughout the 1980s and into the 2000s, the Disney brands ranked among the most successful in Hollywood.

    32.  When Nazis took power in 1933, the influence of German Cinema came to an end.

    33.  British Parliament passed the Cinematograph Act in 1927.

    34.  By 1932, the technological shakedown period for sound was over and the outlines identifying the Hollywood system were clear.

    35. Between 1930 and 1939 Michael Curtiz shot 44 films, Mervyn Leroy, 36; and John Ford, 26 films.






                                Italian Neorealism and French New Wave

Italian Neorealism:
After the fall of Benito Mussolini’s government in 1945, the Italian Film Industry faced with the crisis. The World War2 was ended. But the effects of the war were not finished. The Italian Film Industry economically faced with crisis. Roberto Rossellini produced a film ‘Rome Open City’ (1945). The effects of 2nd World War were the main elements of the film. This is the first time Roberto Rossellini took the shots out of the studio. It is about the effects of 2nd world war and its construction situation.
Film director Federic Felleni believed that Neorealism is observing any kind of reality with honest eye, which includes social, spiritual and metaphysical reality that is anything a man has inside of him.
Andre Bazin a French film critic called Neorealism “a cinema of fact” and “reconstituting reportage with a message”.
This style created a balance between real life issues and cinematic art. The first crucial Neorealist film was Roberto Rossellini’s ‘Rome Open City’ (1945) which displayed the struggling against the German Troops occupying Rome. Roberto Rossellini continued the Neorealism project by “bringing people awareness of the spiritual truth, self knowledge and obligation to others.”  Roberto Rossellini’s works influenced The French New Wave critics to become filmmakers. It was ‘Bicycle Thieves’ (1948) by Vittorio De Sica that was the most notable representation of the Italian Neorealism Style.
‘Bicycle Thieves’ (1948) has been compared with French New Wave film ‘The 400 Blows’(1959)  as both fils have the same realist , humanist and renewed set of realist conventions.

French New Wave:
The French New Wave movement began the same way as Italian Neorealism through a film journalist magazine. In 1950s many French became film directors.The French New Wave’s main idea is low budget production. Because Jean-Luc-Godard and Francois Truffaut created films using the French New Wave style. Neorealism became an influence due to its political attitudes, worldview and innovations of film form. Italian Neorealism illustrated features and French filmmakers also could aim to. So the French filmmakers created films like Italian Neorealism style. New French Wave was born out of inspiration for Italian Nerealism and therefore the movements were connected. Jean Luc Godard created films with his own style but used the elements of Italian Neorealism. His ‘Breathless’ (1960) is also a low budget film which expresses a truthful reality. Francois Truffaut another director of French New Wave Style said ‘French directors should be the creator of their films.’ He believed that French directors have their own capability and imagination to develop their own individuality on a film. These Italian Neorealism and French New Wave have social and economic truth and the effects of 2nd world war.



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